1          
          UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
                      Washington, D.C. 20549

                           FORM 10-K
[X] ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE 
ACT OF 1934 
                        (NO FEE REQUIRED)
          For the fiscal year ended December 31, 1997
                               OR
[  ]  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES 
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 
                        (NO FEE REQUIRED)
          For the transition period from________to________
          Commission file number   1-12658
                    
                      ALBEMARLE CORPORATION
     (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
       
   VIRGINIA                                54-1692118       
   (State or other jurisdiction of       (I.R.S. Employer
   incorporation or organization)        Identification No.)

                    330 SOUTH FOURTH STREET
                        P. O. BOX 1335
                   RICHMOND, VIRGINIA  23210
     (Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
  Registrant's telephone number, including area code:  804-788-6000

     Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

   Title of each class              Name of each exchange on which registered
   COMMON STOCK, $.01 Par Value        NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all
reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the
Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months
(or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to
file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing
requirements for at least the past 90 days.    Yes _X_      No ____

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers
pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein,
and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge,
in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by
reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this
Form 10-K.    _____

Aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of
the registrant as of January 31, 1998: $768,791,402*.

Number of shares of Common Stock outstanding as of January 31,
1998: 53,616,402.

* In determining this figure, an aggregate of 18,868,768 shares
of Common Stock treated as beneficially owned by 
Floyd D. Gottwald, Jr., Bruce C. Gottwald, and the members of
their immediate families have been excluded and treated as shares
held by affiliates.  See Item 12 herein.  The aggregate market
value has been computed on the basis of the closing price in the
New York Stock Exchange Composite Transactions on January 31,
1998, as reported by The Wall Street Journal.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Albemarle Corporation's definitive Proxy Statement
for its 1998 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be filed with the
Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A
under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Proxy Statement")
are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

                           
                           -12-


 2
PART I
Item 1. BUSINESS
Albemarle Corporation ("the Company" or "Albemarle") was
incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia on
November 24, 1993, as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ethyl
Corporation ("Ethyl"). Ethyl thereafter transferred to Albemarle,
Ethyl's olefins and derivatives, bromine chemicals and specialty
chemicals businesses, and, at the close of business on February
28, 1994, Ethyl distributed to its common shareholders all of the
outstanding shares of Albemarle. Since February 28, 1994, the
Company has been a publicly held operating company.

On March 1, 1996, the Company sold its alpha olefins, poly alpha
olefins and synthetic alcohols businesses ("Olefins Business") to
Amoco Chemical Company ("Amoco"). After the sale, Albemarle is
engaged in the bromine chemicals, the specialty chemicals and the
surfactants and detergents businesses. 

Unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated statements of income
for the years ended December 31, 1996 and 1995, which the Company
believes are important to enable the reader to obtain a
meaningful understanding of Albemarle's results of operations
excluding the Olefins Business, are included in Note 17
"Supplemental Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Financial
Information (Unaudited)" of the Notes to The Consolidated
Financial Statements on pages 39 and 40. The unaudited pro forma 
condensed consolidated statements of income are for informational 
purposes only and do not purport to be indicative of the Company's 
future consolidated results of operations or what the consolidated 
results of operations would have been had Albemarle operated without the
Olefins Business for all of 1996 and 1995.

On July 24, 1997, the Company announced the realignment of its
global business units into the Polymer Chemicals and Fine
Chemicals divisions effective October 1, 1997.

DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
Albemarle is a major producer of specialty and fine chemicals
including polymer intermediates, cleaning product intermediates
and additives, agricultural chemical intermediates,
pharmaceutical intermediates and bulk actives, catalysts,
brominated flame retardants, bromine chemicals and potassium and
chlorine chemicals. Albemarle employs approximately 2,700 people.

The following discussion of the Company's businesses as of
December 31, 1997, should be read in conjunction with the
information contained in Item 7, Management's Discussion and
Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations on page
18.

The Company conducts its worldwide chemicals operations through
two global business units - Polymer Chemicals and Fine Chemicals,
which in conformity with the Company's adoption of the Financial
Accounting Standards Board's ("FASB") Statement of Financial
Accounting Standards ("SFAS") No. 131 "Disclosure About Segments
of an Enterprise and Related Information" will be reported as two
separate and distinct segments in 1998.

Albemarle manufactures a broad range of chemicals, most of which
are additives to or intermediates for plastics, polymers and
elastomers, cleaning products, agricultural compounds,
pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, drilling compounds and
biocides. Most sales of the Company's products are made directly
to manufacturers of the aforementioned products, including
chemical and polymer companies, pharmaceutical companies,
cleaning product manufacturers, paper and photographic companies,
drilling companies and water treatment companies.

The Company produces the majority of its products in the United
States, but also has a significant production facility in France
and also has aluminum alkyls produced for it by Amoco at the
Company's former Feluy, Belgium plant. The processes and
technology for most of these products were developed in the
Company's or its predecessor's research and development
laboratories.

The Polymer Chemicals business produces a broad range 
of chemicals, including flame retardants, catalysts, polymer
curatives and antioxidants.

In most flame retardant product lines, the Company's 
plants operated below capacity during 1997. The expansion of
brine field and bromine capacities at the Company's Magnolia,
Ark., facility that started in 1995, continued. The overall
result of the current phase of the program will be a bromine
production capacity increase of thirty percent. During 1997, the
Company announced plans to build a world-class production
facility for SAYTEX  RB-100 flame retardant to be located at the
Company's Magnolia, Ark., facility and targeted to start up in
late 1999. The Company continues to focus on expansion of its
bromine production capabilities.

The Company began receiving orders during 1997 for 
SAYTEX  HP-7010 flame retardant product, a new brominated
polystyrene product for use in engineered plastics. In the third
quarter, the Company started a market development unit plant in
its Baton Rouge research and development facility to make this
product and began to fill orders. A new commercial plant is under
construction with a targeted startup in mid 1999.

Aluminum alkyls are used as cocatalysts in the production of
polyolefins, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, elastomers,
alpha olefins such as hexene, octene, and decene, and organotin
heat stabilizers, and in the preparation of organic
intermediates. The Company has continued to expand and
debottleneck its production capacity at Pasadena, Texas and
Orangeburg, S.C. It has also strengthened its supply chain for
methylaluminoxane ("MAO"), a cocatalyst used in metallocene
catalyst systems, by increasing capacity for MAO and for the key
raw materials needed to make MAO. The Company has continued to
build its organometallics base and expand the portfolio of
products and capabilities it offers its customers pursuing the
development and commercialization of metallocene-based polymers.

                           -13-

 3
The Company is also expanding its efforts in polymer curatives,
products used to control polyurethane and epoxy system
polymerization. Also produced are antioxidants and alkylated
hindered phenolics that are used to maintain the performance
integrity of thermoplastic resins.

Products of the Fine Chemicals business include elemental
bromine, alkyl bromides, inorganic bromides, a number of bromine
fine chemicals, and pharmachemical and agrichemical
intermediates. Applications for these products primarily exist in
chemical synthesis, oil and gas well drilling and completion
fluids, water purification, glass making, cleaning products, soil
fumigation and chemical intermediates for pharmaceutical,
photographic and agricultural chemicals. Products originally a
part of what was the olefins and alcohols businesses but not sold
to Amoco, are included as a part of Fine Chemicals. These
products include tertiary amines for surfactants and biocides,
disinfectants and sanitizers; zeolite A (sodium alumina silicate)
used as a phosphate replacement in laundry detergent builders;
and alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) used in paper-sizing
formulations. These products have many varied customers. They are
sold to suppliers for use in household, institutional and
industrial cleaners, personal care products and industrial
products.

The Company's primary bulk actives, ibuprofen and naproxen, are
widely-used pharmaceuticals that provide fever reduction and
temporary relief of aches and pains and menstrual cramps. Bulk
ibuprofen is formulated into tablets by pharmaceutical companies
who sell to customers in both the prescription and
over-the-counter markets. Ibuprofen products account for more
than 25% of the U.S. over-the-counter analgesic market. They
compete against other painkillers containing aspirin,
acetaminophen, ketoprofen and naproxen. The Company is one of the
world's largest producers of bulk ibuprofen. In 1997, the Company
started commercial production of bulk naproxen with initial sales
commencing in the U.S. only after customers obtained U.S. Food and Drug
Administration ("FDA") approval.

Agricultural intermediates are sold to chemical companies that
supply finished products to farmers, governments and 
others. These products include orthoalkylated anilines for the
acetanilide family of pre-emergent herbicides used on corn,
soybeans and other crops, and organophosphorus products for
insecticide use. A new agricultural intermediate (an urease
inhibitor), primarily for use on corn to improve the
effectiveness of nitrogen-based fertilizers, underwent
commercial-scale trials and expanded testing in 1997.

The Company's subsidiary Albemarle PPC ("APPC") operates a plant
in Thann, France. APPC is one of the world's largest producers of
organic and inorganic brominated compounds used mainly in
pharmaceutical, photographic and agricultural chemical
intermediates. APPC also operates an electrolysis unit to produce
high-purity caustic potash and potassium carbonate used in the
glass, water treatment, cleaning product and food industries.
APPC strengthens the Company's position in Fine Chemicals and 
provides substantial additional manufacturing and research and 
development capabilities in Europe.

In most Fine Chemicals' product lines, the Company's plants
operated near capacity during 1997, with the exception of bulk
ibuprofen, halide aluminum alkyls and bulk naproxen which had
excess capacity.

The Company operates on a worldwide basis with (i) a
manufacturing plant located in France in addition to facilities
in the United States, (ii) offices and distribution terminals in
Belgium, France, Japan and Singapore as well as the United States
and (iii) offices in Hong Kong and Beijing, China. The Company
has no significant assets in countries in which those assets
would be deemed to be exposed to substantial risk. See Note 16
"Geographic Area Information" of Notes to The Consolidated
Financial Statements in Item 8 on page 39.

COMPETITION
The Company operates in a highly competitive marketplace,
competing against a number of other companies in each of its
product lines. Some markets involve a significant number of
competitors, while others involve only a few. The competitors of
the Company are both larger and smaller in terms of resources and
market share. Competition generally is based on product
performance, reputation for quality, price and customer service
and support. The degree and nature of competition depends on the
type of product involved.

In general, the Company competes in all of its markets on the
basis of the quality and price of its products as well as
customer services, by maintaining a broad range of products and
by focusing resources on products in which the Company has a
competitive advantage. The Company endeavors to improve its
reputation for quality products, competitive prices and excellent
customer service and support. Competition in connection with all
of the Company's products requires continuing investments in
research and development, product and process improvements and
specialized customer services. Through research and development,
the Company and its subsidiaries will seek to increase margins by
introducing value-added products and products based on
proprietary technologies.

RAW MATERIALS
Raw materials used by the Company include ethylene, potassium
chloride, aluminum, ortho-toluidine, bisphenol-A, chlorine,
phenol, isobutylene, caustic soda, toluene, diphenyl oxide,
alumina trihydrate, dimethlyamine, phthalic anhydride, alpha
olefins, maleic anhydride, ethanol, phosphorus, sulfuric acid,
and nitrogen, as well as electricity and natural gas as fuels,
most of which are readily available from numerous 
suppliers and are purchased or provided under contracts at prices
the Company believes are competitive. The Company also produces
bromine in Arkansas from its extensive brine reserves backed by
an active leasing program. The Company has signed supply
agreements with the Dead Sea Bromine group of companies. The
contracts essentially cover the 

                          -14-



 4
bromine requirements for the production of bromine fine chemicals 
in our Thann, France facility and provide additional bromine if 
requested for the Company's other bromine needs.


MAJOR CUSTOMERS
Due to the diversity of product lines in which the Company
competes, no major portion of the Company's sales or earnings was
generated by one customer nor is the Company overly reliant on
contracts with any one public, private or governmental entity.

Several of the Company's customers manufacture products for
cyclical industries such as the agricultural, automotive,
electronics and building and construction industries. As a
result, demand for the products of the Company from customers in
such industries also is cyclical. In addition, the profitability
of sales of certain of the Company's products depends on the
level of industry plant capacity utilization.

Due to the diversity and size of the Company's operations, there
is little seasonal variation in revenues or earnings, except for
certain agricultural products.

OTHER MATTERS
On March 1, 1996, the Company sold its Olefins Business to Amoco
for $487.3 million, including plant and equipment, other assets,
inventory and accounts receivable net of expenses and related
trade payables paid by the Company.

The sale involved the transfer of approximately 550 people who
supported these businesses. Certain assets located primarily in
Pasadena, Texas, Deer Park, Texas, and Feluy, Belgium, were
included in the sale. The transaction included numerous operating
and service agreements primarily focusing on the sharing of
common facilities at the Pasadena, Texas, plant and the operation
for the Company of the aluminum alkyls portion of the Feluy plant
site by Amoco. In connection with the sale of the Olefins
Business, the Company also implemented an early-retirement and
work-force reduction program for certain salaried employees. The
effort has resulted in annual cost savings to the Company. A Form
8-K report relating to the sale was filed with the Securities and
Exchange Commission ("SEC") on March 15, 1996.

On April 1, 1996, the Company purchased 9,484,465 shares of its
common stock, at a price of $23 per share plus expenses for a 
total aggregate cost of $219.4 million, through a tender offer, 
which began on March 4, 1996, and concluded on April 1, 1996. 
Later in 1996, the Company purchased an additional 1,756,500 shares 
for $32.1 million, at an average price of $18.25 per share, in market 
transactions. During 1997, the Company purchased 1,560,300 shares for 
$37.5 million, at an average price of $24.04 per share, in market 
transactions. As of February 28, 1998, the Company had authorization to
purchase 4,411,100 shares of its common stock reflecting
purchases since December 31, 1997, and increased Board of
Directors authorization of 2 million additional shares obtained
at the February 1998 board meeting.

RESEARCH AND PATENTS
The Company's research and development supports each major
business area. With respect to Polymer Chemicals, the research
focus is divided between new and improved flame retardants and
polymerization catalysts. Flame retardant research is targeted to
satisfy increasing market needs for performance and quality in
products manufactured from polystyrene, 
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and engineered
thermoplastics. Catalysts research is targeted to meet the market
needs for cost-effective metallocene catalyst systems for the
production of improved polyolefin polymers. Development efforts
are focused on efficiently debottlenecking plant capacity to meet
the strong demand for the above businesses. These efforts are
expected to continue into 1998 and beyond.

The primary focus of the Company's Fine Chemicals research
program is the development of efficient processes for the
manufacture of chemical intermediates for the pharmachemical and
agrichemical industries. A secondary focus is the development of
efficient manufacturing processes for pharmaceutical bulk active
compounds which are no longer covered by patents. Another area of
research is the development of biocides for industrial and
recreational water treatment and other applications, especially
products based on bromine chemistry. These efforts are expected
to continue into 1998 and beyond.

In addition to the U.S. research facility in Baton Rouge, La.,
the Company's European businesses are supported by the research
and development facilities at Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, and
Thann, France.

The Company spent approximately $31.4 million, $30.4 million and
$29.5 million in 1997, 1996 and 1995, respectively, on research
and development, which amounts qualified under the technical
accounting definition of research and development. Total R&D
department spending for 1997 was some $44.4 million, including
$13.0 million related to technical services support to customers
and the Company's plants, testing of existing products, quality
improvement and environmental studies.

The Company considers patents, licenses and trademarks 
to be of significance to its business. As of December 31, 1997,
the Company owned 1,234 active U.S. and foreign patents,
including 37 U.S. patents and 76 foreign patents issued in 1997.
Some of these patents are licensed to others. In addition, rights
under the patents and inventions of others have been acquired by
the Company through licenses. The Company's patent position is
actively managed and is deemed by it to be adequate for the
conduct of its business. 

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
The Company maintains and operates manufacturing and distribution
facilities and equipment which are used in the Polymer and Fine
Chemicals divisions. These are subject to environmental risks and
regulations, which are discussed more fully in Item 7,
Management's Discussion and Analysis and Financial Condition and
Results of Operations under the heading "Environmental Matters"
on page 21.

                             -15-


 5
FINANCIAL INFORMATION AS TO INDUSTRY SEGMENTS AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS
The Company's operations are substantially all in the chemicals
industry. Geographic area information for the Company's
operations for the three years ended December 31, 1997, is
presented in Note 16 "Geographic Area Information" 
of the Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8
on page 39.


FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC OPERATIONS AND EXPORT SALES
Financial information about the Company's foreign and domestic
operations and export sales for the three years ended December
31, 1997, is set forth in Note 16 "Geographic Area Information"
of the Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8
on page 39. Domestic export sales to non-affiliates may be made
worldwide but are made primarily in the Asia Pacific region,
Latin America and Europe. Foreign unaffiliated net sales are
primarily in Europe, the Middle East and the Asia Pacific region.

Item 2. PROPERTIES
The Company's principal executive offices are located at 330
South Fourth Street, Richmond, Va.  23219, and its principal
operations offices are located at 451 Florida Street, Baton
Rouge, La. 70801. The Company leases its executive offices and
operations offices in Richmond, Va. and Baton Rouge, La.,
respectively; and its regional offices in Brussels, Belgium;
Singapore; Tokyo, Japan; and Beijing, China; as well as various
other offices. 

The following is a brief description of the principal plants and
related facilities of the Company, all of which are owned except
as stated below.

LOCATION                             PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS 

Baton Rouge, La.                    Research and product development 
(2 facilities, one on leased land)   activities

Pasadena, Texas                     Production of aluminum alkyls, 
                                     alkenyl succinic anhydride, 
                                     orthoalkylated anilines, 
                                     zeolite A and other chemicals

Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium           Research and customer technical
                                     service activities

Magnolia, Ark.                      Production of flame retardants and bromine
(West Plant)

Magnolia, Ark.                      Production of flame retardants, bromine,
(South Plant)                        ethylene dibromide, several inorganic 
                                     bromides, agrichemical intermediates
                                     and tertiary amines

Orangeburg, S.C.                    Production of fine chemicals, including
                                     pharmachemical intermediates, 
                                     fuel additives, orthoalkylated phenols 
                                     and polymer modifiers

Thann, France                       Production of organic and inorganic 
                                    brominated pharmaceutical intermediates, 
                                    photographic and agrichemical 
                                    intermediates, high-purity caustic potash 
                                    and potassium carbonate; research and 
                                    product development activities

Takaishi City, Osaka, Japan         Production of aluminum alkyls
(50 percent joint venture  
with Mitsui Chemicals, Inc.)

Feluy, Belgium                      Production of aluminum alkyls
(Leased by Amoco under a 99-year     
lease but operated for the Company)

                              -16- 

 6
The Company currently is adding capacity in the flame retardants
and fine chemicals areas. The Company believes that its plants,
including planned expansions, will be adequate at projected sales
levels for 1998. Operating rates of certain plants vary with
product mix and normal seasonal sales swings. The Company
believes that its plants generally are well maintained and 
in good operating condition.

CERTAIN AGREEMENTS BETWEEN ALBEMARLE AND ETHYL
Albemarle and Ethyl entered into agreements, dated as of February
28, 1994, pursuant to which the Company and Ethyl agreed to
coordinate certain facilities and services of adjacent operating
facilities at plants in Pasadena, Texas, and Feluy, Belgium.
Effective March 1, 1996, certain of these agreements were
transferred to Amoco as part of the Olefins Business sale. In
addition, Albemarle and Ethyl, entered into agreements 
providing for the blending by Albemarle for Ethyl of certain
products and the production of others at the Company's
Orangeburg, S.C., plant.

CERTAIN AGREEMENTS BETWEEN ALBEMARLE AND
MEMC PASADENA, INC. ("MEMC")
Albemarle and MEMC entered into agreements, dated as of July 31,
1995, and subsequently revised effective May 31, 1997, pursuant
to which Albemarle currently provides support services to MEMC at
its Pasadena, Texas, plant which consists of facilities for the
production of electronic materials products. Effective May 31,
1997, Albemarle supplies certain utilities and services to the
MEMC Pasadena plant site pursuant to a utilities and services
agreement (the "Utilities and Services Agreement".) All of the
utilities and services are supplied at Albemarle's cost plus a
percentage fee. Albemarle furnishes certain utilities and
services for a minimum of five years from the effective date (May
31, 1997) of the Utilities and Services Agreement, subject to the
right of MEMC to terminate any one or more utilities or services
on twelve months' notice. Albemarle will make available to MEMC
certain other utilities and services for the duration of MEMC's
lease of the property upon which the MEMC Pasadena plant site is
located.

CERTAIN AGREEMENTS BETWEEN ALBEMARLE AND AMOCO
Albemarle and Amoco entered into agreements, dated as of March 1,
1996, pursuant to which the Company provides operating and
support services, certain utilities and products to Amoco, and
Amoco provides operating and support services, certain utilities
and products to Albemarle.


PASADENA, TEXAS AGREEMENTS
After the sale, Amoco owns and operates the linear alpha olefins
and synthetic alcohols facilities ("Amoco Pasadena plant").
Albemarle owns and operates all remaining Albemarle plants
("Albemarle Pasadena plant"). As a result of the sale, Albemarle
supplies to Amoco (among others) certain utilities utilized by
Amoco at the Amoco Pasadena plant and Amoco supplies to Albemarle
(among others) certain utilities utilized by Albemarle at the
Albemarle Pasadena plant.

Virtually all of the utilities, services and products supplied by
Albemarle to Amoco and from Amoco to Albemarle in Pasadena, Texas
are supplied at the provider's cost plus a percentage fee. Most
of the utilities, services and products supplied by Albemarle to
Amoco and from Amoco to Albemarle have an initial term of 10
years, with an automatic extension for an additional 10 year
term, unless terminated by either party at the end of the initial
term upon 2 years notice. With respect to products supplied by
Albemarle to Amoco, and conversely Amoco to Albemarle, each may
terminate the supply of such product to the other on 180 days
notice.

FELUY, BELGIUM AGREEMENTS
After the sale, Amoco possesses (under a 99-year lease, with
certain purchase options) and operates the linear alpha olefins
and poly alpha olefins facilities. In addition, Amoco possesses
(under the same lease) and operates the aluminum alkyls
facilities exclusively for Albemarle (term: 10 years-Albemarle
has the right to extend for one additional 10-year term).
Albemarle supplies aluminum alkyl products to Amoco for use in
the linear alpha olefins facility (term: 10 years-Amoco has the
right to extend for one additional 10-year term). The services
and products supplied by Albemarle to Amoco and from Amoco to
Albemarle are at the provider's cost plus a percentage fee.

Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company and its subsidiaries are involved from time to time
in legal proceedings of types regarded as common in the Company's
businesses, particularly administrative or judicial proceedings
seeking remediation under environmental laws, such as Superfund,
and products liability litigation.

While it is not possible to predict or determine the outcome of
the proceedings presently pending, in the Company's opinion they
will not ultimately result in any liability that would have a
material adverse effect upon the results of operations or
financial condition of the Company and its subsidiaries on a
consolidated basis.

Item 4. SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS
None.

                            -17-

 7
PART II
Item 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED
SHAREHOLDER MATTERS
The Company's common stock is traded primarily on the New York
Stock Exchange under the symbol ALB. The market price highs and
lows (per the New York Stock Exchange) by quarters for the years
1997 and 1996 are listed below:


1997 1996 Quarter High Low High Low - --------------------------------------------------------------- First 20 17 7/8 22 3/4 17 1/4 Second 21 1/2 17 3/8 24 1/8 18 1/4 Third 27 1/4 20 13/16 19 1/4 14 3/8 Fourth 26 3/4 21 7/8 19 1/8 15 1/2 - ---------------------------------------------------------------
There were 53,886,802 shares of common stock held by 9,044 shareholders of record as of December 31, 1997. The Company's current common stock dividend rate is $.36 per share on an annual basis after the Board of Directors on August 27, 1997, increased the quarterly dividend rate, payable October 1, 1997, by 29%, from $.07 to $.09 per share. The Company's quarterly dividend rate, payable October 1, 1996, was previously increased on August 28, 1996, from $.055 to $.07 per share, or 27%. Shareholders' equity per share at December 31, 1997 was $9.60, up 4.6% from $9.18 at December 31, 1996. The December 31, 1996, shareholders' equity per share of $9.18 was down 2.5% from $9.42 at December 31, 1995, primarily reflecting the impact of the purchase of 9,484,465 common shares through a tender offer concluded on April 1, 1996, and additional second and third quarter 1996 purchases of 275,400 and 1,481,100 common shares, respectively. Item 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA The information for the five years ended December 31, 1997, is contained in the "Five Year Summary" included in Part IV, Item 14, Exhibit 99 on pages 46 and 47. Item 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS Albemarle Corporation ("the Company" or "Albemarle") became an independent company upon the spin-off by Ethyl Corporation ("Ethyl") of its olefins and derivatives, bromine chemicals and specialty chemicals businesses. At the close of business on February 28, 1994, Ethyl distributed to its common shareholders all of the outstanding common shares of Albemarle. On March 1, 1996, the Company sold its alpha olefins, poly alpha olefins and synthetic alcohols businesses ("Olefins Business") to Amoco Chemical Company ("Amoco"). The following financial data and discussion about net sales, operating profit, capital expenditures and geographical areas provides an analysis of certain significant factors affecting the results of operations of the Company for years ended December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995. In addition, a discussion of consolidated financial condition and sources of additional capital is included under a separate heading, "Financial Condition and Liquidity" on page 21. Unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 1996 and 1995, which the Company believes are important to enable the reader to obtain a meaningful understanding of Albemarle's results of operations excluding the Olefins Business, are included in Note 17 "Supplemental Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Financial Information (Unaudited)" of the Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 on pages 39 and 40. The unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated statements of income are for informational purposes only and do not purport to be indicative of the Company's future consolidated results of operations or what the consolidated results of operations would have been had Albemarle operated without the Olefins Business for all of 1996 and 1995. -18- 8 RESULTS OF OPERATIONS Net Sales Net sales for 1997 amounted to $829.9 million, down from $854.5 million in 1996. Excluding the first two months net sales of the Olefins Business sold March 1, 1996, Albemarle's net sales for 1997 would have shown an increase of seven percent from 1996 primarily due to higher shipments in agricultural chemicals, pharmaceutical intermediates, organometallics, antioxidants and flame retardants, offset in part by the effects of a stronger U.S. dollar on sales in Europe and the Asia Pacific region. Net sales for 1996 amounted to $854.5 million, down from $1,244.2 million in 1995. Excluding net sales of the Olefins Business sold March 1, 1996, and the electronic materials business sold July 31, 1995, (See Note 13 "Special Items" of the Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements on pages 37 and 38) Albemarle's net sales for 1996 would have shown an increase of five percent from 1995 due primarily to higher shipments of organometallics and a higher sales mix of bromine fine chemicals, partly offset by lower shipments and lower prices of flame retardants and pharmaceutical intermediates. OPERATING COSTS AND EXPENSES Cost of goods sold in 1997 decreased $42.9 million from 1996 primarily due to the absence of shipments of the Olefins Business for two months in 1996, offset in part by increased shipments in 1997, with the result that the gross profit margin increased to 31.5% in 1997 from 28.5% in 1996. The improvement in gross margin reflects improved plant utilizations and the impact of the Company's cost reduction program. Average energy costs were higher during 1997 and reflected an unusually strong natural gas market. Albemarle's overall 1997 raw material prices were generally flat compared to 1996 with the exception of ethylene and ethylene derivatives which were higher. Cost of goods sold in 1996 decreased $355.9 million from 1995 primarily due to the absence of shipments of the Olefins Business for ten months in 1996 and the electronic materials business for all of 1996 versus 1995 and higher foreign exchange gains in 1996 with the result that the gross profit margin increased to 28.5% in 1996 from 22.3% in 1995. The reductions in 1996 cost of goods sold were partially offset by higher costs in pharmaceutical intermediates, related primarily to naproxen sampling and start-up costs, as well as higher operating costs resulting from underutilization of assets in flame retardants in 1996. Average energy unit costs were higher in 1996. Both natural gas and electricity prices were higher in 1996 than in the prior year. Raw material prices were generally lower in 1996 than in the prior year with ethylene, aluminum, potassium chloride and phthalic anhydride having the largest decreases. Selling, general and administrative expenses, combined with research and development expenses, decreased $9 million (6%) in 1997 from 1996, primarily due to lower outside consulting costs and lower employee-related expenses resulting from the Company's workforce reduction program implemented in conjunction with the sale of the Olefins Business and lower expenses associated with the exercise of stock appreciation rights and the award of restricted stock than in 1996, offset in part by normal salary increases in 1997. This compares to a $10.4 million decrease (6%) in 1996 from 1995, primarily due to lower employee-related expenses as a result of the March 1, 1996, sale of the Olefins Business and the July 31, 1995, sale of the electronic materials business, offset in part by normal salary increases and the expense associated with the exercise of certain stock appreciation rights and the award of restricted stock in 1996. As a percentage of net sales, selling, general and administrative expenses, including research and development expenses, decreased to 17% in 1997 from 17.5% in 1996 versus 12.9% in 1995. OPERATING PROFIT Operating profit in 1997 increased 29.2% from 1996. Excluding the first two months of 1996 operating profits of the Olefins Business sold, 1997 operating profits would have shown an increase of approximately 33% over 1996. The 1997 period benefited primarily from increased shipments in agricultural chemicals, organometallics and antioxidants, increased shipments and improved costs in pharmaceuticals and bromine fine chemicals, and improved costs in European potassium and chlorine chemicals, while flame retardants were down primarily due to the effects of a stronger U.S. dollar. Operating profit in 1996 decreased 20% from 1995. Excluding the results of businesses sold, operating profit was also down significantly primarily due to lower shipments and higher costs in pharmaceutical intermediates and flame retardants. Costs in pharmaceutical intermediates were higher primarily due to the expenses associated with commercializing naproxen for introduction in mid 1997 while the flame retardants business was heavily impacted by a lengthy slowdown in the electronics industry resulting in higher costs associated with the underutilization of assets. INTEREST AND FINANCING EXPENSES AND OTHER INCOME Interest and financing expenses in 1997 decreased $1.8 million from 1996 primarily due to higher capitalization of interest on capital projects in 1997. This compares to a decrease of $10.7 million in 1996 from 1995 primarily due to lower average debt outstanding, reflecting pay down of debt with proceeds from the sale of the Olefins Business. Other income, net, decreased to $.9 million in 1997 from $4.0 million in 1996, which decreased $.5 million from $4.5 million in 1995, due primarily to lower interest income. -19- 9 GAIN ON SALE OF BUSINESSES The Company's 1996 earnings include a gain of approximately $158.2 million ($94.4 million after income taxes) on the sale of the Olefins Business and in 1995 the Company's earnings included a gain of approximately $23.4 million ($14.5 million after income taxes) on the sale of the electronic materials business. (See Note 13 "Special Items" of the Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements on pages 37 and 38.) INCOME TAXES Income taxes in 1997 decreased $56.1 million (58%) compared to 1996 reflecting a 52% decrease in pre-tax income while the effective income tax rate was 33.8% in 1997 versus a 38.3% rate for 1996. Excluding the effect of the gain on the sale of the Olefins Business, the effective income tax rate for 1996 would have been 34.5% which is slightly higher than the 1997 rate. Income taxes in 1996 increased $43.7 million (82%) compared to 1995 on a 92% increase in pre-tax income while the effective income tax rate was 38.3% in 1996 versus a 40.6% rate for 1995. The 1996 rate was lower than the 1995 rate due primarily to improved earnings in the Company's Belgian subsidiary, while the 1995 rate reflected a deferred income tax charge of approximately $2.9 million recognized in 1995 as a result of an increase in the French statutory tax rate. (See Note 12 "Income Taxes" of the Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements on pages 36 and 37 for details of changes in effective income tax rates.) OUTLOOK In 1997, the Company saw significant improvement in its profitability built upon its focus on cost reductions and plant efficiencies as well as a seven percent growth in revenues. As the Company goes into 1998, it expects to continue to face the challenges of a strong U.S. dollar and its impact on the Company's revenue growth. In Fine Chemicals, the Company initiated sales in the U.S. of the analgesic naproxen following late 1997 approval of some prospective customers by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but remain disappointed in the level and pace of its efforts. The Company's bulk ibuprofen sales continue strong, a trend that began to develop in the latter half of 1997. The Company's emerging Surface Actives business continues to focus on the cleaning and water treating industries. An expanded range of ADMOX surfactants and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") registered quaternary biocides will be targeted at formulators of hard surface cleaning products. SANIBROM biocides are expected to increase penetration of the industrial and recreational water treating areas by replacing chlorine based sanitizers with safer, more effective bromine based products. ABZOL cleaners are receiving broader acceptance in the electronic and precision cleaning markets, but their full potential will not be realized until the EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy approval is received. The Company is hopeful for a recovery in Gulf Coast oil drilling operations that use its bromine-based completion fluids. The Polymer Chemicals unit introduced two new flame retardants in late 1997. Prospective customers are qualifying these products at this time. The Company expects sales of these products to pick up later in 1998, assuming successful completion of this qualification process. The Company's new catalyst business continues to reach some of its milestones as the Company seeks to become a full-service catalyst supplier to the polymer industry. The Company continues to work toward a mid-1998 startup of the plant to produce ETHACURE 300 curative used in cast polyurethane elastomers and other applications. The curative offers several handling and processing benefits over other similar products. The economic turmoil in Asia is a concern to the Company in light of our sales into the region. However, the Company's products are purchased for use in other products, primarily electronics, sold in the U.S. and Europe. These economies continue to experience good economic growth, and demand for such products is strong. The Company continues to keep a close watch on conditions, including the creditworthiness of its customers. As part of the Company's efforts to insure that the change of dates beginning in the year 2000 will not cause disruption to its business information and process systems, the Company established a project team in 1997 to determine the scope of this issue and to map the implementation of solutions. The Company completed the preliminary review and expects to implement new systems in 1998 to provide ample time for testing and final implementation in 1999. The Company's completion of key software changes in 1997, including enterprise-wide SAP , PeopleSoft and Lotus Notes software platforms, should make the Company's financial, operations, planning, human resources and general business areas year 2000 compliant. Preliminary estimates for two-year expenditures are approximately $5 million. Some of the information presented above constitutes forward-looking comments within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Although the Company believes its expectations are based on reasonable assumptions within the bounds of its knowledge of its businesses and operations, there can be no assurance that actual results will not differ materially from its expectations. Factors which could cause actual results to differ from expectations include, without limitation, the timing of orders received from customers, the gain or loss of significant customers, competition from other manufacturers, changes in the demand for the Company's products, increases in the cost of the product, changes in the market in general, fluctuations in foreign currencies and significant changes in new product introduction resulting in an increase in capital project requests and approvals leading to additional capital spending. -20- 10 FINANCIAL CONDITION AND LIQUIDITY Cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 1997 were $34.3 million, which represents an increase of $20.1 million from $14.2 million at year-end 1996. Cash provided from operating activities was $98.8 million, which together with $61.1 million of proceeds from borrowings were used to cover operating activities in 1997, including a working capital increase (reflecting mainly higher accounts receivable and inventories and a decrease in accounts payable), capital expenditures, payment of quarterly dividends to common shareholders, purchase 1,560,300 shares of common stock for $37.5 million and repayment of a portion of long-term debt, with the balance added to cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 1996 were $14.2 million, which represented a decrease of $18.9 million from $33.1 million at year-end 1995. Cash provided from operating activities was $28.5 million which included installment income tax payments of $79.4 million on the gain from the sale of the Olefins Business. Excluding the impact of the installment income tax payments, which were paid from the proceeds on the sale of the Olefins Business, cash flows from operations would have been $107.9 million, which together with $23.9 million of proceeds from borrowings, were used to cover operating activities in 1996, including a working capital increase (reflecting mainly higher accounts receivable and inventories), capital expenditures, payment of quarterly dividends to common shareholders, and the purchase of 1,756,500 shares of common stock for $32.1 million. Proceeds from the sale of the Olefins Business of $487.3 million, net of expenses and trade payables paid by the Company, supplemented by $18.9 million from cash on hand, were used to purchase 9,484,465 shares of common stock, repay long-term debt and pay income tax installments related to the sale. The Company anticipates that cash provided from operating activities in the future will be sufficient to cover its operating expenses, debt service obligations, dividend payments to common shareholders, and to fund a portion of its capital expenditures. The noncurrent portion of the Company's long-term debt amounted to $91.4 million at December 31, 1997, compared to $24.4 million at the end of 1996. The Company's total long-term debt, including the current portion as a percentage of total capitalization at December 31, 1997, was approximately 15.1% (See Note 8 "Long-Term Debt" of the Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements on pages 30 and 31 for details of the Company's long-term borrowings.) The Company, at December 31, 1997, had the flexibility to borrow up to a total of $500 million ($70 million outstanding at December 31, 1997) under its Competitive Advance and Revolving Credit Facility Agreement ("Credit Agreement"). The Credit Agreement contains certain covenants typical for a credit agreement of its size and nature, including financial covenants requiring the Company to maintain consolidated indebtedness (as defined) of not more than 60% of the sum of the Company's consolidated shareholders' equity (as defined) and consolidated indebtedness. The amount and timing of any borrowings will depend on the Company's specific cash requirements. The Company's foreign currency translation adjustments, net of related deferred taxes, at December 31, 1997, decreased from December 31, 1996, primarily due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar. Capital expenditures in 1997 of $85.3 million were lower than the 1996 level of $90.4 million. The Company's capital spending program is expected to increase significantly over the next few years. This increase is expected to expand capacities at existing facilities to support an expected increase in sales. Capital spending for environmental and safety projects is expected to be about the same over the next few years. Future capital spending is expected to be financed primarily with cash provided from operating activities, with the balance, if necessary, provided by additional long-term debt. The Company continues to evaluate potential acquisitions of facilities and/or businesses, particularly in areas where our know-how adds value. ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS The Company is subject to federal, state, local and foreign requirements regulating the handling, manufacture or use of materials (some of which may be classified as hazardous or toxic by one or more regulatory agencies), the discharge of materials into the environment and the protection of the environment. To the best of the Company's knowledge, it is currently complying with and expects to continue to comply in all material respects with existing environmental laws, regulations, statutes and ordinances. Such compliance with federal, state, local and foreign environmental protection laws is not expected to have in the future, a material effect on earnings or the competitive position of Albemarle. Among other environmental requirements, the Company is subject to the federal Superfund law, and similar state laws, under which the Company may be designated as a potentially responsible party ("PRP") and may be liable for a share of the costs associated with cleaning up various hazardous waste sites. Management believes that in most cases, the Company's participation is de minimis. Further, almost all such sites represent environmental issues that are quite mature and have been investigated, studied and in many cases settled by the Company or its predecessor company. In de minimis PRP matters, the Company's policy generally is to negotiate a consent decree and to pay any apportioned settlement, enabling the Company to be effectively relieved of any further liability as a PRP, except for remote contingencies. In other than de minimis PRP matters, the Company's records indicate that unresolved exposures should be immaterial. The Company accrues and expenses its proportionate share of PRP costs in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards ("SFAS") No. 5 "Accounting for Contingencies" -21- 11 and Financial Accounting Standards Board's ("FASB") Interpretation No. 14, as clarified by American Institute of Certified Public Accountant's Statement of Position 96-1. Because management has been actively involved in evaluating environmental matters, the Company is able to conclude that the outstanding environmental liabilities for unresolved PRP sites should not be material to operations. The Company's environmental and safety operating costs charged to expense, which are not considered to be normal operating costs were approximately $13.3 million in 1997 versus approximately $11.5 million in 1996 and $9.0 million in 1995, excluding depreciation of previous capital expenditures, and are expected to be in the same range in the next few years. Costs for remediation have been accrued and payments related to sites are charged against accrued liabilities, which at December 31, 1997, totaled approximately $8.9 million. There is a reasonable possibility that future remediation costs in excess of amounts already recorded could be up to $6.8 million before income taxes. However, the Company believes that any sum it may be required to pay in connection with environmental remediation matters in excess of the amounts recorded would occur over a period of time and should not have a material adverse impact on its financial condition or results of operations, but could have a material adverse impact in a particular reporting period. Capital expenditures for pollution-abatement and safety projects for the Company, including such costs that are included in other projects, were approximately $17.2 million, $14.7 million and $22.0 million in 1997, 1996 and 1995, respectively. For each of the next few years, capital expenditures for these types of projects are likely to be in the same range as the 1997 level. Management's estimates of the effects of compliance with governmental pollution-abatement and safety regulations are subject to (i) the possibility of changes in the applicable statutes and regulations or in judicial or administrative construction of such statutes and regulations, and (ii) uncertainty as to whether anticipated solutions to pollution problems will be successful, or whether additional expenditures may prove necessary. GEOGRAPHIC AREAS The following discussion is based on information provided in Note 16 "Geographic Area Information" of the Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 on page 39. Domestic operating profit includes profit from U.S. export sales and profit from sales to foreign affiliates of products that are resold in foreign markets. Intercompany transfers from foreign areas to the U.S. are not material. Export sales increased 10% from 1996 primarily due to increased shipments. In 1996 export sales decreased 36% from 1995 primarily due to the sale of the Olefins Business. Foreign unaffiliated net sales for 1997 decreased 4% from 1996 primarily due to the foreign exchange effects of a stronger U. S. dollar in 1997. In addition, excluding the 1996 sales by Albemarle S.A. related to the Olefins Business sold in 1996, 1997 foreign unaffiliated net sales would have increased 8% over 1996. Foreign unaffiliated net sales for 1996 decreased 33% from 1995 primarily due to the absence after March 1, 1996, of sales by Albemarle S.A. related to the Olefins Business sold. The operating results of the foreign operations were up significantly from 1996 primarily due to lower costs in the Company's European locations, primarily the Thann, France facility. The operating results of the foreign operations were profitable in 1996 versus an operating loss in 1995. Operating profit for 1996 reflects favorable foreign exchange gains and the effects in Belgium of the sale of the Olefins Business. Total assets were $888.2 million at the end of 1997 versus $846.3 million at the end of 1996 and $1,204.5 million at the end of 1995. Identifiable assets in the U.S. increased $27.9 million in 1997 from 1996, primarily due to increased capital expenditures and other investments, while 1996 showed a decrease of $118.2 million from 1995, primarily due to the sale of the Olefins Business. Foreign identifiable assets increased $14.0 million from 1996, while 1996 decreased $240.1 million from 1995 due primarily to the sale of the Olefins Business. NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS The FASB issued SFAS No. 130, "Reporting Comprehensive Income", and SFAS No. 131, "Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information", in June, 1997, which are effective for financial statements for annual periods beginning after December 15, 1997. SFAS No. 130 establishes standards for reporting comprehensive income in a full set of general purpose financial statements, either in the income statement or in a separate statement, and also requires display of "accumulated other comprehensive income" in a separate caption in the equity section of the balance sheet. SFAS No. 131 establishes standards for reporting information about operating segments, including related disclosures about products and services, geographic areas, and major customers. The Company will adopt SFAS Nos. 130 and 131 in 1998. At the time of their adoption these standards are not expected to have a material impact on the financial position or results of operations of the Company. -22- 12 Item 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (In Thousands of Dollars Except Share Data) - ----------------------------------------------------------------------
December 31 1997 1996 - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ASSETS Current assets: Cash and cash equivalents $ 34,322 $ 14,242 Accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts (1997 - $2,449; 1996 - $1,290) 154,421 141,293 Inventories: Finished goods 65,998 58,518 Raw materials 7,424 10,148 Stores, supplies and other 16,861 15,833 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 90,283 84,499 Deferred income taxes and prepaid expenses 17,710 19,107 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total current assets 296,736 259,141 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Property, plant and equipment, at cost 1,188,252 1,148,832 Less accumulated depreciation and amortization 691,612 653,108 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Net property, plant and equipment 496,640 495,724 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Other assets and deferred charges 77,204 68,304 Goodwill and other intangibles - net of amortization 17,601 23,092 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total assets $ 888,181 $ 846,261 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY Current liabilities: Accounts payable $ 50,668 $ 66,968 Long-term debt, current portion 379 7,457 Accrued expenses 47,578 55,783 Dividends payable 4,952 3,853 Income taxes payable 8,983 13,887 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total current liabilities 112,560 147,948 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Long-term debt 91,414 24,406 Other noncurrent liabilities 69,704 64,166 Deferred income taxes 97,167 104,543 Shareholders' equity: Common stock, $.01 par value, issued - 53,886,802 in 1997 and 55,046,183 in 1996 539 550 Additional paid-in capital 218,841 250,890 Foreign currency translation adjustments (1,445) 16,677 Retained earnings 299,401 237,081 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total shareholders' equity 517,336 505,198 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total liabilities and shareholders' equity $ 888,181 $ 846,261 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- See accompanying Notes To The Consolidated Financial Statements.
-23- 13 CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (In Thousands Except Per-Share Amounts) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------
Years Ended December 31 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Net sales $ 829,850 $ 854,481 $ 1,244,222 Cost of goods sold 568,424 611,353 967,204 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gross profit 261,426 243,128 277,018 Selling, general and administrative expenses 109,273 119,260 130,514 Research and development expenses 31,446 30,442 29,541 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Operating profit 120,707 93,426 116,963 Interest and financing expenses 719 2,529 13,265 Gain on sales of businesses -- (158,157) (23,427) Other income, net (917) (4,025) (4,468) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Income before income taxes 120,905 253,079 131,593 Income taxes 40,923 97,020 53,363 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net income $ 79,982 $ 156,059 $ 78,230 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Basic earnings per share $ 1.45 $ 2.67 $ 1.18 Shares used to compute basic earnings per share 55,164 58,353 66,069 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diluted earnings per share $ 1.44 $ 2.65 $ 1.18 Shares used to compute diluted earnings per share 55,668 58,842 66,352 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cash dividends declared per share of common stock $ .32 $ .25 $ .21 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- See accompanying Notes To The Consolidated Financial Statements.
-24- 14 CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY (In Thousands of Dollars Except Share Data) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Years Ended December 31 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Shares Amounts Shares Amounts Shares Amounts - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ COMMON STOCK (AUTHORIZED 150,000,000 SHARES) Beginning balances 55,046,183 $ 550 66,076,853 $ 661 66,067,881 $ 661 Issued upon exercise of stock options and SARs 400,919 4 178,840 2 8,972 -- Award of restricted stock -- -- 34,680 -- -- -- Shares purchased and retired (1,560,300) (15)(11,244,190) (113) -- -- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ending balances 53,886,802 539 55,046,183 550 66,076,853 661 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ADDITIONAL PAID-IN CAPITAL Beginning balances 250,890 498,827 498,725 Exercise of stock options and SARs 5,451 2,636 102 Award of restricted stock -- 832 -- Shares purchased and retired (37,500) (251,405) -- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ending balances 218,841 250,890 498,827 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION ADJUSTMENTS Beginning balances 16,677 27,604 14,505 Translation adjustments (18,122) (10,927) 13,099 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ending balances (1,445) 16,677 27,604 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RETAINED EARNINGS Beginning balances 237,081 95,474 31,118 Net income 79,982 156,059 78,230 Cash dividends declared (17,662) (14,452) (13,874) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ending balances 299,401 237,081 95,474 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total shareholders' equity $ 517,336 $ 505,198 $622,566 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- See accompanying Notes To The Consolidated Financial Statements.
-25- 15 CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (In Thousands of Dollars) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Years Ended December 31 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year $ 14,242 $ 33,130 $ 32,114 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cash flows from operating activities: Net income 79,982 156,059 78,230 Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash flows from operating activities: Depreciation and amortization 69,044 71,044 94,131 Deferred income taxes 8,070 (21,404) (2,368) Gain on sales of businesses -- (158,157) (23,427) Change in assets and liabilities, net of effects of sales of businesses: (Increase) in accounts receivable (21,069) (9,830) (11,190) (Increase) in inventories (11,378) (3,234) (27,807) (Decrease) increase in accounts payable (12,889) 13,001 686 (Decrease) increase in accrued expenses (11,423) (11,596) 10,182 Other, net (1,529) (7,414) (2,200) - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net cash provided from operating activities 98,808 28,469 116,237 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cash flows from investing activities: Capital expenditures (85,284) (90,439) (112,412) Proceeds from sales of businesses, net of expenses and $42,297 of trade accounts payable paid by the Company in 1996 -- 487,345 4,195 Collections on notes receivable from sale of business -- -- 55,000 Other, net (5,006) 2,318 (546) - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net cash (used in) provided from investing activities (90,290) 399,224 (53,763) - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cash flows from financing activities: Purchases of common stock (37,515) (251,518) -- Repayments of long-term debt (413) (206,672) (48,254) Proceeds from borrowings 61,102 23,944 237 Dividends paid (16,563) (14,233) (13,543) Proceeds from exercise of stock options 4,951 1,898 102 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net cash provided from (used in) financing activities 11,562 (446,581) (61,458) - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents 20,080 (18,888) 1,016 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cash and cash equivalents at end of year $ 34,322 $ 14,242 $ 33,130 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ See accompanying Notes To The Consolidated Financial Statements.
-26- 16 NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS NOTE 1-SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES: CONSOLIDATION The consolidated financial statements include the accounts and operations of Albemarle Corporation and all of its wholly-owned subsidiaries ("the Company" or "Albemarle"). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated in consolidation. BASIS OF PRESENTATION Albemarle Corporation became an independent company upon the spin-off by Ethyl Corporation ("Ethyl") of its olefins and derivatives, bromine chemicals and specialty chemicals businesses ("the predecessor businesses"). At the close of business on February 28, 1994, Ethyl distributed to its common shareholders all of the outstanding common shares of Albemarle. The distribution was made in the form of a tax-free dividend. One share of the Company's common stock was distributed to Ethyl common shareholders for every two shares of Ethyl common stock held. On March 1, 1996, the Company sold its alpha olefins, poly alpha olefins and synthetic alcohols businesses ("Olefins Business") to Amoco Chemical Company ("Amoco"). Due to the significance of the sale on the operations of the Company, certain unaudited pro forma disclosures have been included. See Note 17 "Supplemental Pro Forma Condensed Consolidated Financial Information (Unaudited)". Certain amounts in the accompanying consolidated financial statements and notes thereto have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation. CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS Cash and cash equivalents in the accompanying consolidated financial statements consist of cash and time deposits of the Company for the years ended December 31, 1997 and 1996. Time deposits of 90 days or less are stated at cost, which approximates market value. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION ADJUSTMENTS The assets and liabilities of all foreign subsidiaries were prepared in their respective local currencies and translated into U.S. dollars based on the current exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet dates, while income and expenses were translated at average rates for the periods presented. Translation adjustments [net of deferred income (tax benefits) taxes of $(11,072,000), $(6,675,000) and $8,001,000 in 1997, 1996 and 1995, respectively] are reflected as foreign currency translation adjustments in the shareholders' equity section of the consolidated balance sheets and in the consolidated statements of changes in shareholders' equity and accordingly have no effect on net income. Transaction adjustments are included in income. Foreign currency transaction adjustments resulted in gains of $8,325,000, $8,049,000 and $555,000 in 1997, 1996 and 1995, respectively. INVENTORIES Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined on the last-in, first-out ("LIFO") basis for substantially all domestic inventories except stores and supplies, and on either the weighted-average or first-in, first-out cost basis for other inventories. Cost elements included in finished goods inventories are raw materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead. Raw materials include purchase and delivery costs. Stores and supplies include purchase costs. PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT Accounts include costs of assets constructed or purchased, related delivery and installation costs and interest incurred on significant capital projects during their construction periods. Expenditures for renewals and betterments also are capitalized, but expenditures for repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred. The cost and accumulated depreciation applicable to assets retired or sold are removed from the respective accounts, and gains or losses thereon are included in income. Depreciation is computed primarily by the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets. The Company evaluates historical and expected undiscounted operating cash flows of the related business units or fair value of property, plant and equipment to determine the future recoverability of any property, plant and equipment recorded. For purposes of determining these evaluations, undiscounted cash flows are grouped at levels which management uses to operate the business, which in some cases include businesses on a worldwide basis. Recorded property, plant and equipment is reevaluated on the same basis at the end of each accounting period whenever any significant permanent changes in business or circumstances have occurred which might impair recovery. The costs of brine wells, leases and royalty interests are primarily amortized over the estimated average life of the well. On a yearly basis, for all wells, this approximates a unit-of-production method based upon estimated reserves and production volumes. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND REMEDIATION Environmental compliance costs include the cost of purchasing and/or constructing assets to prevent, limit and/or control pollution or to monitor the environmental status at various locations. These costs are capitalized and depreciated based on estimated useful lives. Environmental compliance costs also include maintenance and operating costs with respect to pollution prevention and control facilities and other administrative costs. Such operating costs are expensed as incurred. Environmental remediation costs of facilities used in current operations are generally immaterial and are expensed as incurred. Remediation costs and post-remediation costs at facilities or off-plant disposal sites that relate to an existing condition caused by past operations are accrued as liabilities and expensed when such costs are reasonably estimated. -27- 17 GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLES Goodwill and other intangibles consist principally of goodwill, sales contracts, product licenses and patents. Goodwill amounting to $14,528,000 and $18,026,000 at December 31, 1997 and 1996, respectively, net of accumulated amortization and effects of foreign currency translation adjustments, arose from the 1993 acquisition of Potasse et Produits Chimiques SA ("PPC") and is being amortized on a straight-line basis over periods of 16 to 20 years. Intangible assets ($3,073,000 and $5,066,000 at December 31, 1997 and 1996, respectively, net of accumulated amortization and effects of foreign currency translation adjustments) are amortized on a straight-line basis over periods from three to 17 years. Amortization of goodwill and other intangibles amounted to $2,754,000, $4,255,000 and $4,379,000 for 1997, 1996 and 1995, respectively. Accumulated amortization of goodwill and other intangibles was $34,023,000 and $31,361,000 at the end of 1997 and 1996, respectively. The Company evaluates historical and expected undiscounted operating cash flows of the related business units to determine the future recoverability of any goodwill recorded. For purposes of determining these evaluations, undiscounted cash flows are grouped at levels which management uses to operate the business, which in some cases include businesses on a worldwide basis. Recorded goodwill is reevaluated on the same basis at the end of each accounting period whenever any significant permanent changes in business or circumstances have occurred which might impair recovery. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENSES The Company-sponsored research and development expenses related to present and future products are expensed currently as incurred. PENSION PLANS AND OTHER POSTRETIREMENT BENEFITS Annual costs of pension plans are determined actuarially based on Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Statement of Financial Accounting Standards ("SFAS") No. 87, "Employers' Accounting for Pensions" ("SFAS No. 87"). The Company's policy is to fund U.S. pension plans at amounts not less than the minimum requirements of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and generally for obligations under its foreign plans to deposit funds with trustees and/or under insurance policies. Annual costs of other postretirement plans are accounted for based on SFAS No. 106, "Employers' Accounting for Postretirement Benefits Other than Pensions". The policy of the Company is to fund postretirement health benefits for retirees on a pay-as-you-go basis. EMPLOYEE SAVINGS PLAN The Company's employees may participate in the Albemarle defined contribution 401(k) employee savings plan which is generally available to all full-time salaried and non-union hourly employees and to employees who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement pursuant to the terms of such agreement. The plan is funded with contributions by participants and the Company. Expenses recorded for the 401(k) plan by the Company approximated $4,900,000, $4,900,000 and $5,100,000 in 1997, 1996 and 1995, respectively. INCOME TAXES The Company and its subsidiaries file consolidated U.S. Federal income tax returns and individual foreign income tax returns. Deferred income taxes result from temporary differences in the recognition of income and expenses for financial and income tax reporting purposes, using the liability or balance sheet method. Such temporary differences result primarily from differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect in the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. It is the Company's policy to record deferred income taxes on any undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries that are not deemed to be, or are not intended to be, permanently reinvested in those subsidiaries. In connection with the spin-off at the close of business on February 28, 1994, the Company and Ethyl entered into a tax sharing agreement whereby Ethyl agreed to indemnify and hold harmless the Company against all taxes attributable to the predecessor businesses prior to the spin-off, with the exception of the Company's subsidiaries which remained responsible for their taxes. EARNINGS PER SHARE The Company calculates earnings per share ("EPS") as required by SFAS No. 128, "Earnings Per Share,"("SFAS No. 128"), which requires dual presentation of basic and diluted EPS. All prior-period EPS data have been restated as required by SFAS No. 128 (See Note 3, "Earnings Per Share"). FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS The Company to an extent manages its foreign currency exposures by maintaining certain assets and liabilities in approximate balance and through the use of foreign exchange contracts. The principal objective of such contracts is to minimize the risks and/or costs associated with global operating activities. The Company generally does not utilize financial instruments for trading or other speculative purposes. The -28- 18 counterparties to these contractual agreements are major financial institutions with which the Company generally also has other financial relationships. The Company is exposed to credit loss in the event of nonperformance by these counterparties. However, the Company does not anticipate nonperformance by the other parties, and no material loss would be expected from their nonperformance. The Company enters into forward currency exchange contracts, which typically expire within one year, in the regular course of business to assist in managing its exposure against foreign currency fluctuations on sales and intercompany transactions. While these hedging contracts are subject to fluctuations in value, such fluctuations are generally offset by the value of the underlying foreign currency exposures being hedged. Gains and losses on forward contracts are recognized currently in income. The Company had outstanding forward exchange contracts at December 31, 1997 and 1996, hedging German mark and Japanese yen receivables and revenues with a notional value totaling $23,527,000 and $9,270,000, respectively. For the years ended 1997, 1996 and 1995, the Company recognized $2,167,000, $694,000 and $2,332,000, respectively, in income before income taxes on its forward exchange contracts. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION SFAS No. 123, "Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation," ("SFAS No. 123") encourages, but does not require companies to record at fair value compensation cost for stock-based employee compensation plans. The Company has chosen to continue to account for stock-based compensation using the intrinsic value method prescribed in Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 25, "Accounting for Stock Issued to Employees," ("APB Opinion No. 25") and related interpretations (See Note 9, "Capital Stock".) Under the intrinsic method, compensation cost for stock options is measured as the excess, if any, of the quoted market price of the Company's stock at the date of the grant over the amount an employee must pay to acquire the stock. ESTIMATES The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS The FASB issued SFAS No. 130, "Reporting Comprehensive Income", and SFAS No. 131, "Disclosures about Segments of an Enterprise and Related Information", in June, 1997, which are effective for financial statements for annual periods beginning after December 15, 1997. SFAS No. 130 establishes standards for reporting comprehensive income in a full set of general purpose financial statements, either in the income statement or in a separate statement, and also requires display of "accumulated other comprehensive income" in a separate caption in the equity section of the balance sheet. SFAS No. 131 establishes standards for reporting information about operating segments, including related disclosures about products and services, geographic areas, and major customers. The Company will adopt SFAS Nos. 130 and 131 in 1998. At the time of their adoption these standards are not expected to have a material impact on the financial position or results of operations of the Company. NOTE 2-SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW INFORMATION: Supplemental information for the consolidated statements of cash flows is as follows:
(In Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cash paid during the year for: Income taxes $ 37,475 $ 110,771 $ 49,439 Interest and financing expenses (net of capitalization) 574 2,910 13,382 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------------------------------
NOTE 3-EARNINGS PER SHARE: Basic and diluted earnings per share are calculated as follows:
(In Thousands, Except Per-Share Data) 1997 1996 1995 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Basic Earnings Per Share Numerator: Income available to stockholders, as reported $ 79,982 $ 156,059 $ 78,230 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Denominator: Average number of shares of common stock outstanding 55,164 58,353 66,069 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Basic earnings per share $ 1.45 $ 2.67 $ 1.18 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diluted Earnings Per Share Numerator: Income available to stockholders, as reported $ 79,982 $ 156,059 $ 78,230 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Denominator: Average number of shares of common stock outstanding 55,164 58,353 66,069 Shares issuable upon exercise of stock options 504 489 283 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total shares 55,668 58,842 66,352 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diluted earnings per share $ 1.44 $ 2.65 $ 1.18 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------- - --------------------------------------------------------------------------
-29- 19 NOTE 4-INVENTORIES: Domestic inventories stated on the LIFO basis amounted to $42,957,000 and $35,167,000 at December 31, 1997 and 1996, respectively, which are below replacement cost by approximately $35,983,000 and $34,868,000, respectively. NOTE 5-DEFERRED INCOME TAXES AND PREPAID EXPENSES: Deferred income taxes and prepaid expenses consist of the following:
(In Thousands) 1997 1996 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Deferred income taxes - current $ 14,680 $ 15,083 Prepaid expenses 3,030 4,024 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total $ 17,710 $ 19,107 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- - -----------------------------------------------------------------------
NOTE 6-PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT: Property, plant and equipment, at cost, consists of the following:
(In Thousands) 1997 1996 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Land $ 18,582 $ 19,343 Land improvements 36,177 39,291 Buildings 83,906 88,281 Machinery and equipment 993,160 958,950 Construction in progress 56,427 42,967 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total $1,188,252 $1,148,832 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- - -----------------------------------------------------------------------
The cost of property, plant and equipment is depreciated, generally by the straight-line method, over the following useful lives: land improvements - 5 to 30 years; buildings - 10 to 40 years; and machinery and equipment - 3 to 25 years. Interest capitalized on significant capital projects in 1997, 1996, and 1995 was $1,826,000, $823,000 and $2,260,000, respectively, while amortization of capitalized interest (which is included in depreciation expense) in 1997, 1996 and 1995 was $1,382,000, $1,610,000 and $2,841,000, respectively. NOTE 7-ACCRUED EXPENSES: Accrued expenses consist of the following:
(In Thousands) 1997 1996 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Employee benefits, payroll and related taxes $ 21,392 $ 21,958 Taxes other than payroll 3,900 8,075 Other 22,286 25,750 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total $ 47,578 $ 55,783 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- - -----------------------------------------------------------------------
NOTE 8-LONG-TERM DEBT: Long-term debt consists of the following:
(In Thousands) 1997 1996 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Variable-rate bank loans $ 77,000 $ 16,300 Foreign borrowings 13,645 14,392 Miscellaneous 1,148 1,171 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 91,793 31,863 Less amounts due within one year 379 7,457 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Long-term debt $ 91,414 $ 24,406 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- - -----------------------------------------------------------------------
Maturities of long-term debt for the next five years are as follows: 1998 - $379,000; 1999 - $383,000; 2000 - $344,000; 2001 - - $347,000; 2002 - $88,902,000 and 2003 through 2016 - $1,438,000. On September 24, 1996, the Company entered into a five-year, $500 million unsecured Competitive Advance and Revolving Credit Facility Agreement (the "Credit Agreement") with a consortium of banks at various interest rate options to replace its existing credit facility. At December 31, 1997, $70 million in borrowings was outstanding under the Credit Agreement. No amounts were outstanding at December 31, 1996. The Credit Agreement contains certain covenants typical for a credit agreement of its size and nature, including financial covenants requiring the Company to limit consolidated indebtedness (as defined) to not more than 60% of the sum of the Company's consolidated shareholders' equity (as defined) and consolidated indebtedness. On August 26, 1997, the maturity date of the Credit Agreement was extended to September 29, 2002. The average interest rate on 1997 borrowings under the Credit Agreement was 5.88%, with a year-end interest rate of 6.11% on the balance outstanding at December 31, 1997. -30- 20 The Company has four additional agreements with domestic banks which provide immediate uncommitted credit lines, on a short-term basis, up to a maximum of approximately $125 million at the individual bank's money market rate. At December 31, 1997, $7 million in borrowings from these agreements were outstanding, which the Company has the ability to refinance with borrowings under the Credit Agreement; therefore, this amount has been classified as long-term debt. The average interest rate on borrowings under these agreements was 5.64% in 1997, with a year-end interest rate of 6.88% on balances outstanding at December 31, 1997. One of the Company's foreign subsidiaries modified an existing agreement with a foreign bank during 1997 which provides immediate uncommitted credit lines, on a short-term basis, up to a maximum of approximately $15 million at the individual bank's money market rate. At December 31, 1997, borrowings under this agreement consisted of 1.5 billion Japanese yen ($11.6 million). The average interest rate on borrowings under this agreement was 1.63% in 1997. The Company has the ability to refinance borrowings from this agreement with borrowings under the Credit Agreement; therefore, this amount has been classified as long-term debt. Additional foreign borrowings at December 31, 1997, consisted of 12.57 million French francs ($2.1 million). The average interest rate on this borrowing was 0.50% in 1997. Two of the Company's foreign subsidiaries have separate, additional agreements with foreign banks during 1997 which provide immediate uncommitted credit lines, on a short-term basis, up to a maximum of approximately $27 million at the individual bank's money market rate. These agreements have been guaranteed by the Company. At December 31, 1997, no borrowings were outstanding under these agreements. NOTE 9-CAPITAL STOCK: PREFERRED STOCK The Company has the authority to issue 15,000,000 shares of preferred stock, in one or more classes or series. No shares of the Company's preferred stock have been issued to date. STOCK PURCHASES During the fourth quarter of 1997, the Company purchased 1,560,300 shares of its common stock on the open market at a total cost of $37.5 million. On April 1, 1996, the Company purchased 9,484,465 shares of its common stock, at a price of $23 per share plus expenses for a total aggregate cost of $219.4 million, through a tender offer, which began on March 4, 1996, and concluded on April 1, 1996, following the sale of the Olefins Business to Amoco. Additionally, the Company purchased 275,400 and 1,481,100 common shares in the second and third quarters of 1996, respectively, at an aggregate cost of $32.1 million. The Company, at December 31, 1997, had authorization from its Board of Directors to purchase 2,683,200 additional shares. STOCK OPTION PLAN On February 8, 1994, an Omnibus Stock Incentive Plan ("Plan") was adopted by the Company. Under the Plan, a maximum of 3,200,000 shares of the Company's common stock may be issued as restricted stock or upon the exercise of incentive or nonqualified stock options and stock appreciation rights ("SARs"). Such options, SARs and restricted stock may be granted to participants under the Plan. Initial options and related SARs were granted March 1, 1994, to officers and key employees to purchase a total of 1,499,500 shares of the Company's common stock. All of these options and related SARs expire no later than ten years from the date of grant and the exercise price was set at $13.125 per share, the closing price of the Company's common stock on March 1, 1994. These options and related SARs became exercisable in full at December 31, 1995 based upon the growth in operating earnings of the Company from the base year earnings for the year ended December 31, 1993. The compensation expense associated with the exercise of SARs in 1997 and 1996 amounted to approximately $1.0 million and $1.5 million, respectively. In addition, holders of options under the Ethyl Stock Option Plan who became employees of the Company were given the choice of retaining those options or surrendering them in favor of receiving options to purchase shares of the Company's common stock. Employees of the Company who elected to surrender their Ethyl options received options for shares of the Company's common stock. For these options, the Company adopted the same terms as were applicable when they were issued under the terms of the Ethyl Stock Option Plan. On May 6, 1996, 34,680 shares of restricted stock were awarded and issued under the Plan. One half vest in one year with the remaining half vesting in two years. The fair value of the restricted stock was $24 per share at the award date, which was the market price of the Company's stock on that date. Of the aggregate compensation expense associated with the awards, which included certain tax benefits to the recipients, approximately $.3 million and $1.1 million, was recognized as an expense in 1997 and 1996, respectively. -31- 21 The Company granted 293,000 additional options to officers and key employees during 1996. These options expire 10 years from the date of grant with an exercise price of $17.375 per share, the closing price of the Company's common stock on August 28, 1996. These options become exercisable based upon the growth in operating earnings from the base-year earnings or the increase in the fair market value ("FMV") on the last trading day of each year of the Company's common stock from the FMV on the date of grant. As of December 31, 1997, 175,800 of these options became exercisable. Stock option activity in 1995, 1996 and 1997 is shown below:
Weighted- Average Shares Available Options Exercise for Grant Activity Options Price Price - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- January 1, 1995 1,420,619 1,779,381 $9.45 - $14.81 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Exercised -- (8,972) $11.39 $11.39 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- December 31, 1995 1,420,619 1,770,409 $9.45 - $14.81 $13.05 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Granted (293,000) 293,000* $17.38 $17.38 Exercised -- (301,646) $9.45 - $13.47 $13.00 Lapsed 10,000 (10,000) $13.13 $13.13 Restricted stock awards (34,680) - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- December 31, 1996 1,102,939 1,751,763 $9.45 - $17.38 $13.78 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Exercised -- (473,254) $9.45 - $14.81 $13.03 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- December 31, 1997 1,102,939 1,278,509 $9.45 - $17.38 $14.06 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- * The weighted average fair value of options granted during 1996 was $6.47.
The following table summarizes information about fixed-price stock options at December 31, 1997:
Options Outstanding Options Exercisable - -------------------------------------------------|--------------------------- Weighted- Weighted- | Weighted- Number Average Average | Number Average Exercise Outstanding Remaining Exercise |Exercisable Exercise Prices @ 12/31/97 Contractual Life Price | @ 12/31/97 Price - -------------------------------------------------|--------------------------- $ 9.45 1,127 0.7 years $ 9.45 | 1,127 $ 9.45 12.29 13,039 1.7 years 12.29 | 13,039 12.29 10.36 8,543 2.8 years 10.36 | 8,543 10.36 12.12 28,294 4.0 years 12.12 | 28,294 12.12 13.47 40,735 5.0 years 13.47 | 40,735 13.47 13.13 893,771 6.2 years 13.13 | 893,771 13.13 17.38 293,000 8.7 years 17.38 | 175,800 17.38 - -------------------------------------------------|--------------------------- 1,278,509 |1,161,309 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-32- 22 As discussed in Note 1, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies", the Company accounts for stock-based compensation plans under APB Opinion No. 25. If compensation cost had been determined based on the fair value at the grant date for awards made in 1996 under the Plan consistent with the method of SFAS No. 123, the Company's net income and earnings per share would have been reduced to the pro forma amounts indicated below:
1997 1996 - --------------------------------------------------------------- Net Income as reported $ 79,982 $ 156,059 pro forma $ 79,394 $ 155,863 - --------------------------------------------------------------- Basic earnings as reported $ 1.45 $ 2.67 per share pro forma $ 1.44 $ 2.67 - --------------------------------------------------------------- Diluted earnings as reported $ 1.44 $ 2.65 per share pro forma $ 1.43 $ 2.65 - --------------------------------------------------------------- - ---------------------------------------------------------------
The fair value of each option is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions used for options granted in 1996: dividend yield 2.61%; expected volatility of 29.33%; risk-free interest rate of 6.39%; and expected lives of eight years. NOTE 10-RENTAL EXPENSE AND OTHER DATA: RENTAL EXPENSE The Company has a number of operating lease agreements, primarily for office space, transportation equipment and storage facilities. Future minimum lease payments for the next five years for all noncancelable leases as of December 31, 1997, are $5,847,000 for 1998, $4,080,000 for 1999, $2,857,000 for 2000, $2,574,000 for 2001, $2,390,000 for 2002, and amounts payable after 2002 are $2,062,000. Rental expense was approximately $13,200,000 for 1997, $15,000,000 for 1996, and $20,400,000 for 1995. CONTRACTUAL COMMITMENTS Contractual obligations for plant construction and purchases of real property and equipment amounted to approximately $10,800,000 at December 31, 1997. SERVICE AGREEMENTS The Company and Ethyl are parties to arm's length agreements, dated as of February 28, 1994, pursuant to which the Company and Ethyl agreed to coordinate certain facilities and services of adjacent operating facilities at plants in Pasadena, Texas and Feluy, Belgium. In addition, the Company and Ethyl are parties to agreements providing for the blending by the Company of Ethyl's additive products and the production of antioxidants and manganese-based antiknock compounds at the Orangeburg, S.C., plant. The Company's billings to Ethyl in 1997 and 1996 in connection with these agreements amounted to approximately $29 million and $34 million, respectively. The Company and MEMC Pasadena, Inc. ("MEMC Pasadena") are parties to agreements dated as of July 31, 1995 and subsequently revised effective May 31, 1997, pursuant to which the Company provides certain utilities and services to the MEMC Pasadena site which is located at Albemarle's Pasadena plant and on which the electronic materials facility is located. MEMC Pasadena agreed to reimburse Albemarle for all the costs and expenses incurred as a result of these agreements. The Company's billings to MEMC Pasadena, in connection with these agreements amounted to approximately $38 million in 1997 and $41 million in 1996. The Company and Amoco are parties to numerous operating and service agreements, dated as of March 1, 1996, pursuant to which the Company provides operating and support services, certain utilities and products to Amoco, and Amoco provides operating and support services, certain utilities and products to Albemarle. The Company's billings to Amoco in 1997 and 1996, in connection with these agreements, amounted to approximately $42 million each year. Amoco's billings to the Company in 1997 and 1996, in connection with these agreements, amounted to $15 million and $17 million, respectively. ENVIRONMENTAL The Company accrues for environmental remediation costs and post-remediation costs on an undiscounted basis at facilities or off-plant disposal sites that relate to existing conditions caused by past operations in the accounting period in which responsibility is established and when the related costs are estimable. In developing these cost estimates, evaluation is given to currently available facts regarding each site, with consideration given to existing technology, presently enacted laws and regulations, prior experience in remediation of contaminated sites, the financial capability of other potentially responsible parties and other factors, subject to uncertainties inherent in the estimation process. Additionally, these estimates are reviewed periodically, with adjustments to the accruals recorded as necessary. The Company has recorded liabilities of approximately $8.9 million and $8.4 million at December 31, 1997 and 1996, respectively, which represents management's best estimate of the Company's future remediation and other anticipated environmental costs relating to past operations. Although it is difficult to quantify the potential financial impact of compliance with environmental protection laws, management estimates, based on the latest available information, that there is a reasonable possibility that future environmental remediation costs to be incurred over a period of time associated with the Company's past operations in excess of amounts already recorded, could be up to $6.8 million before income taxes. However, the Company believes that any sum it may be required to pay in connection with environmental remediation matters in excess of the amounts recorded will -33- 23 not have a material adverse impact on its financial condition or results of operations, but could have a material adverse impact in a particular reporting period. LITIGATION The Company is from time-to-time subject to routine litigation incidental to its businesses. The Company is not party to any pending litigation proceedings that are expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations or financial condition. Accordingly, no additional disclosures are required. NOTE 11-PENSION PLANS AND OTHER BENEFITS: PENSION PLANS The Company has primarily noncontributory defined benefit pension plans covering most employees. The benefits for these plans are based primarily on years of service and compensation. The funding policy for each plan complies with the requirements of relevant governmental laws and regulations. Plan assets consist principally of common stock, U.S. government and corporate obligations and group annuity contracts. The pension income and prepaid pension expense information for all periods presented include amounts related to salaried and hourly plans. The components of the Company's net pension income for the years ended December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995, are as follows:
(In Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 - --------------------------------------------------------------------- Return on plan assets: Actual return $ 65,717 $ 84,802 $ 53,321 Expected return lower than actual (33,004) (54,669) (25,396) - --------------------------------------------------------------------- Expected return 32,713 30,133 27,925 Amortization of transition asset 2,719 2,718 2,718 Service cost (benefits earned during the year) (7,350) (7,367) (7,274) Interest cost on projected benefit obligation (20,360) (18,950) (17,406) Amortization of prior service costs (1,482) (1,436) (810) - --------------------------------------------------------------------- Net pension income $ 6,240 $ 5,098 $ 5,153 - --------------------------------------------------------------------- - ---------------------------------------------------------------------
Amortization of the transition asset is based on the amount determined at the date of adoption of SFAS No. 87. Net pension income and plan obligations are calculated using assumptions of estimated discount and long-term interest rates and rates of projected increases in compensation. The discount rates for measuring benefit obligations were assumed to be 7.25% at December 31, 1997, 7.5% at December 31, 1996, and 7.25% at December 31, 1995. The rates of projected compensation increase were assumed to be 4.5% at the end of all periods. The expected long-term rate of return on plan assets was assumed to be 9.5% each year. Net pension income (see preceding table) is determined using assumptions as of the beginning of each year. Funded status (see table below) is determined using assumptions as of the end of each year. In 1996, the Company recognized a one-time curtailment loss and special termination benefits charge of $5.5 million, which was included in the net gain on the sale of the Olefins Business (See Note 13, "Special Items"), as required by SFAS No. 88 "Employers' Accounting for Settlements and Curtailments of Defined Benefit Pension Plans and for Termination of Benefits" ("SFAS No. 88") reflecting the effects of the transfer of approximately 550 people who supported the Olefins Business sold to Amoco. The following table presents a reconciliation of the funded status of the pension plans to prepaid pension expense which is included in the line item "Other assets and deferred charges" of the consolidated balance sheets:
(In Thousands) December 31 1997 1996 - -------------------------------------------------------------------- Plan assets at fair value $ 435,172 $ 382,323 - -------------------------------------------------------------------- Less actuarial present value of benefit obligations: Accumulated benefit obligation (including vested benefits of $251,458 and $225,751, respectively) 261,736 236,661 Projected compensation increase 41,072 37,448 - --------------------------------------------------------------------- Projected benefit obligation 302,808 274,109 - --------------------------------------------------------------------- Plan assets in excess of projected benefit obligation 132,364 108,214 Unrecognized net gain (74,640) (55,337) Unrecognized transition asset being amortized (10,416) (13,129) Unrecognized prior service cost being amortized 10,463 11,663 - --------------------------------------------------------------------- Prepaid pension expense $ 57,771 $ 51,411 - --------------------------------------------------------------------- - ---------------------------------------------------------------------
FOREIGN PENSION PLANS Pension coverage for employees of the Company's foreign subsidiaries is provided through separate plans. Obligations under such plans are systematically provided for by depositing funds with trustees or under insurance policies. The pension cost, actuarial present value of benefit obligations and plan assets have been combined with the Company's other pension disclosure information presented. OTHER POSTRETIREMENT BENEFITS The Company provides postretirement medical benefits and life insurance for certain groups of retired employees. Medical and life insurance benefit costs are funded principally on a pay-as-you-go basis. Although the availability of medical -34- 24 coverage after retirement varies for different groups of employees, the majority of employees who retire before becoming eligible for Medicare can continue group coverage by paying the full cost of a composite monthly premium designed to cover the claims incurred by active and retired employees. The availability of group coverage for Medicare-eligible retirees also varies by employee group with coverage designed either to supplement or coordinate with Medicare. Retirees generally pay a portion of the cost of the coverage. The components of net periodic postretirement benefit cost are as follows:
(In Thousands) Years Ended December 31 1997 1996 1995 - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Service cost (benefits attributed to employee service during the year) $ 1,765 $ 1,855 $ 1,816 Interest cost on accumulated postretirement benefit obligation 3,286 3,222 3,093 Return on plan assets (610) (660) (665) Amortization of prior service costs 98 98 98 Amortization of unrecognized net gains (573) (349) (629) - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Net periodic postretirement benefit cost $ 3,966 $ 4,166 $ 3,713 - ----------------------------------------------------------------------- - -----------------------------------------------------------------------
In 1996, the Company recognized a one-time curtailment gain of approximately $726,000 which was included in the gain on the sale of the Olefins Business (See Note 13, "Special Items"), as required by SFAS No. 88, reflecting the effects of the transfer of approximately 550 people who supported the Olefins Business sold to Amoco. Summary information on the Company plans is presented below.
(In Thousands) December 31 1997 1996 - ------------------------------------------------------------------ Financial status of plans: Accumulated postretirement benefit obligation ("APBO"): Retirees $ 17,386 $ 18,364 Fully eligible, active plan participants 7,627 5,737 Other active plan participants 25,047 22,949 - ------------------------------------------------------------------- Total APBO 50,060 47,050 Less plan assets at fair value 6,708 7,339 Less unrecognized prior service cost 980 1,078 Plus unrecognized net gain 9,297 9,784 - ------------------------------------------------------------------- Accrued postretirement benefit cost $ 51,669 $ 48,417 - ------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------------------------
Plan assets for retiree life insurance are held under an insurance contract and reserved for retiree life insurance benefits. The accrued postretirement benefit cost is included in "Other noncurrent liabilities" in the consolidated balance sheets. The discount rates for measuring benefit obligations were 7.25% at December 31, 1997, 7.5% at December 31, 1996 and 7.25% at December 31, 1995. The expected long-term rate of return was assumed to be 9.5% each year. The rate of projected compensation increase was assumed to be 4.5% at the end of all periods. The assumed health care cost trend rate used in measuring the APBO was 10% in 1997, 11% in 1996 and 12% in 1995, declining by 1% per year to an ultimate rate of 7%, except that managed care costs were assumed to be 7% in 1997, 8% in 1996 and 9% in 1995, declining by 1% per year to 6%. If the health care cost trend rate assumptions were increased by 1%, the APBO as of December 31, 1997, would be increased by approximately $5.5 million. The effect of this change on the sum of the service cost and interest cost components of net periodic postretirement benefit cost for 1997 would be an increase of about $0.7 million. CHANGES IN ESTIMATES The lower discount rate at December 31, 1997, increased the pension accumulated benefit obligation and the pension projected benefit obligation by $8.7 million and $10 million, respectively. The lower discount rate at December 31, 1997 increased the APBO by approximately $1.9 million. As a result of the changes in rates, the combined effect on pension income and postretirement benefit expenses in 1998 is immaterial. OTHER POSTEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS The Company also provides certain postemployment benefits to former or inactive employees who are not retirees. The Company funds postemployment benefits on a pay-as-you-go basis. These benefits include salary continuance, severance and disability health care which are accounted for under SFAS No. 112 "Employers' Accounting for Postemployment Benefits". The accrued postemployment benefit liability was approximately $1,924,000 at the end of 1997, an increase of about $27,000 from 1996. -35- 25 NOTE 12-INCOME TAXES: Income (loss) before income taxes and current and deferred income taxes (benefits) are composed of the following:
(In Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Income (loss) before income taxes: Domestic $100,851 $233,776 $141,281 Foreign 20,054 19,303 (9,688) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total $120,905 $253,079 $131,593 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Current income taxes: Federal $ 26,586 $101,698 $ 48,593 State 1,981 12,478 5,058 Foreign 4,286 4,248 2,080 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 32,853 118,424 55,731 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Deferred income taxes (benefits): Federal 7,568 (18,070) (2,959) State 1,042 (2,415) (471) Foreign (540) (919) 1,062 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 8,070 (21,404) (2,368) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total income taxes $ 40,923 $ 97,020 $ 53,363 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------------------------------
The significant differences between the U.S. federal statutory rate and the effective income tax rate are as follows:
% of Income Before Income Taxes - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Federal statutory rate 35.0% 35.0% 35.0% Foreign sales corporation benefit (1.9) (2.9) (1.8) State taxes, net of federal tax benefit 1.5 2.6 1.8 Depletion (1.1) (1.1) (0.8) Higher net tax on Belgian subsidiary due to absence of tax benefits on net operating losses -- -- 2.1 Other items, net 0.3 0.9 1.6 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Effective income tax rate on operations 33.8 34.5 37.9 Sales of businesses -- 3.8 0.5 Increase in French statutory tax rate -- -- 2.2 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Effective income tax rate 33.8% 38.3% 40.6% - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ - ------------------------------------------------------------------------
In December 1995, the Company's French subsidiary recognized approximately $2.9 million in deferred income taxes as a result of French tax legislation imposing a surtax which increased the French corporate tax rate to 36.7%. And in 1997, an additional surtax was imposed by French tax legislation on a temporary basis. -36- 26 The deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities recorded on the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 1997 and 1996, consist of the following:
(In Thousands) 1997 1996 - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Deferred tax assets: Postretirement benefits other than pensions $ 19,751 $ 18,567 Belgian subsidiary net operating loss carryforwards 9,384 18,044 Future employee benefits 6,374 6,096 LIFO inventories 5,102 5,096 Intercompany profit in inventories 3,484 3,816 Foreign currency translation adjustments 928 -- Inventory capitalization 916 1,034 Other 9,986 9,266 - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gross deferred tax assets 55,925 61,919 Valuation allowance (2,105) (10,015) - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net deferred tax assets 53,820 51,904 - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Deferred tax liabilities: Depreciation 93,243 90,653 Pensions 22,481 20,455 Gain on Belgian intercompany loan 7,648 7,648 Olefins Business sale deferred gains 7,267 8,219 Capitalization of interest 2,216 2,289 Foreign currency translation adjustments -- 10,144 Other 3,452 1,956 - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gross deferred tax liabilities 136,307 141,364 - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net deferred tax liabilities $ 82,487 $ 89,460 - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Reconciliation to consolidated balance sheets: Current deferred tax assets $ 14,680 $ 15,083 Deferred tax liabilities 97,167 104,543 - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net deferred tax liabilities $ 82,487 $ 89,460 - --------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Company's Belgian subsidiary's accumulated loss carryforward approximated $23 million and $45 million at December 31, 1997, and 1996, respectively. Approximately $22 million and $27 million of accumulated loss carryforward (approximately $8.7 million and $10.8 million tax benefit) was utilized in 1997 and 1996, respectively, to offset Belgian taxable income. The valuation allowance that was provided for the Belgian subsidiary's operating loss carryforward was established because it has been concluded that although the losses can be carried forward indefinitely, it is more likely than not that a portion of the benefit may not be realized. NOTE 13-SPECIAL ITEMS: On March 1, 1996, the Company sold its Olefins Business to Amoco for $487.3 million, including plant and equipment, other assets, inventory and accounts receivable net of expenses and trade accounts payable paid by the Company, and certain business-related liabilities transferred at the date of sale. The sale involved approximately 550 people who supported these businesses. Certain assets primarily located in Pasadena, Texas, Deer Park, Texas and Feluy, Belgium were included in the sale. The gain on the sale was $158.2 million ($94.4 million after income taxes) net of $44.3 million of costs incurred for early retirements and work-force reductions, abandonment costs of certain facilities and certain other accruals (including environmental) related to or in conjunction with the sale. The transaction included numerous operating and service agreements primarily focusing on the sharing of common facilities at the Pasadena plant site and the Feluy plant site operated by Amoco. -37- 27 On July 31, 1995, the Company sold the assets and transferred the technology for its electronic materials business to MEMC Pasadena, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc. of St. Peters, Mo., for proceeds of approximately $59.2 million consisting of $4.2 million in cash and two notes totaling $55 million. The gain realized on the sale was $23.4 million ($14.5 million after income taxes.) NOTE 14-FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS: In assessing the fair value of financial instruments, the Company uses methods and assumptions that are based on market conditions and other risk factors existing at the time of assessment. Fair value information for the Company's financial instruments is as follows: CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS- The carrying value approximates fair value due to their short-term nature. LONG-TERM DEBT- The carrying value of the Company's long-term debt reported in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 1997 and 1996, approximates fair value since substantially all of the Company's long-term debt bears interest based on prevailing variable market rates currently available in the countries in which the Company has borrowings. FOREIGN CURRENCY EXCHANGE CONTRACTS- The fair values of the Company's forward currency exchange contracts are estimated based on current settlement values. The fair value of the forward contracts were $0.9 million and $0.2 million at December 31, 1997 and 1996, respectively. NOTE 15-QUARTERLY FINANCIAL SUMMARY (UNAUDITED):
First Second Third Fourth (In Thousands Except Per-Share Amounts)Quarter Quarter Quarter Quarter - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1997 NET SALES $ 198,394 $ 207,675 $ 207,111 $ 216,670 GROSS PROFIT $ 66,362 $ 67,809 $ 62,920 $ 64,335 NET INCOME $ 20,177 $ 20,363 $ 18,548 $ 20,894 BASIC EARNINGS PER SHARE $ .37 $ .37 $ .34 $ .38 SHARES USED TO COMPUTE BASIC EARNINGS PER SHARE 55,046 55,204 55,333 55,072(a) DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE $ .36 $ .37 $ .33 $ .38 SHARES USED TO COMPUTE DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE 55,535 55,599 55,910 55,628(a) 1996 Net sales $ 270,171 $ 196,039 $ 183,776 $ 204,495 Gross profit $ 74,111 $ 56,773 $ 44,760 $ 67,484 Gain on sale of Olefins Business (b)$(158,157)$ -- $ -- $ -- Net income $ 115,624 $ 14,635 $ 7,887 $ 17,913 Basic earnings per share $ 1.75 $ .26 $ .14 $ .33 Shares used to compute basic earnings per share (c) 66,085 56,621 55,665 55,041 Diluted earnings per share $ 1.73 $ .26 $ .14 $ .32 Shares used to compute diluted earnings per share (c) 66,663 57,282 56,017 55,406 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Notes to Quarterly Financial Summary (In Thousands Except Share Amounts): (a) Includes the effects of the purchase of 1,560,300 common shares during the fourth quarter. (b) Represents gain resulting from the March 1, 1996, sale of the Olefins Business to Amoco Chemical Company ($94,377 after income taxes). (c) Includes the effects of the purchase of 9,484,465 common shares through a tender offer concluded on April 1, 1996 and additional second and third quarter purchases of 275,400 and 1,481,100 common shares, respectively.
-38- 28 NOTE 16-GEOGRAPHIC AREA INFORMATION: The Company operates in one industry segment which includes the development, manufacture and marketing of specialty chemical products. The Company is an international business with manufacturing and/or distribution facilities in the United States, Belgium, France, Singapore and Japan. Information regarding the Company's operations in different geographic locations for the three years ended December 31, 1997, is shown below. As the Company's foreign regions of manufacturing and distribution have similar business environments and operations, they are presented as one foreign category. Transfers between geographic areas are priced depending on the product and economic activity of the transferee.
Net Sales - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- (In Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Domestic unaffiliated: United States $439,824 $462,444 $ 651,027 Export 101,556 92,137 144,745 Transfers to foreign affiliates 131,539 129,044 160,011 Foreign unaffiliated 288,470 299,900 448,450 Elimination of transfers (131,539) (129,044) (160,011) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total $829,850 $854,481 $1,244,222 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Operating Profit (Loss) (a) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- (In Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- United States $127,741 $114,994 $138,809 Foreign (b) 20,113 8,495 (418) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subtotal 147,854 123,489 138,391 Unallocated expenses (27,147) (30,063) (21,428) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total $120,707 $ 93,426 $116,963 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Identifiable Assets as of December 31 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- (In Thousands) 1997 1996 1995 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- United States $626,397 $598,443 $ 716,602 Foreign 261,784 247,818 487,889 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total $888,181 $846,261 $1,204,491 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Notes: (a) Operating profit represents income before income taxes, before gains on sales of businesses and before interest and financing expenses and other income, net. (b) Includes the effects of foreign exchange gains. See Note 1, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies".
NOTE 17-SUPPLEMENTAL PRO FORMA CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION (UNAUDITED): As a result of the sale of the Olefins Business, the Company believes that the following unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated statements of income on page 40 are important to enable the reader to obtain a meaningful understanding of the Company's results of operations after the transaction. The pro forma condensed consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 1996 and 1995, present the results of operations of the Company assuming that the disposition of the Olefins Business had occurred as of January 1, 1995. Additionally, the accompanying pro forma information, consistent with the data presented in the Company's Form 8-K filed on March 15, 1996, does not reflect the impact of the purchase of 9,484,465 shares of common stock acquired in the Company's tender offer concluded on April 1, 1996, as if it had occurred on January 1, 1995. The unaudited pro forma condensed consolidated statements of income are presented for informational purposes only and do not purport to be indicative of the Company's future consolidated results of operations or what the consolidated results of operations would have been had the Company operated without the Olefins Business for all of 1996 and 1995. -39- 29 PRO FORMA CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (UNAUDITED)
(In Thousands Except Per-Share Amounts) Years Ended December 31 1996 1995 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Adjustments Adjustments Increase Pro Increase Pro Historical (Decrease) Forma Historical (Decrease) Forma - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net sales $854,481 $ (79,763)(1) $1,244,222 $(475,378)(1) 799 (2) $775,517 7,567 (2) $776,411 Cost of goods sold 611,353 (71,268)(1) 967,204 (450,524)(1) 420 (2) 540,505 2,292 (2) 518,972 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gross profit 243,128 (8,116) 235,012 277,018 (19,579) 257,439 Selling, R&D and general expenses 149,702 (5,486)(1) 144,216 160,055 (23,889)(1) 136,166 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Operating profit 93,426 (2,630) 90,796 116,963 4,310 121,273 Interest and financing expenses 2,529 (1,563)(3) 13,265 368 (1) 966 (12,256)(3) 1,377 Gain on sales of businesses (158,157) 158,157 (4) -- (23,427) (23,427) Other (income) expenses, net(4,025) 14 (1) (4,468) 155 (1) (60)(5) (4,071) (359)(5) (4,672) - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Income before income taxes 253,079 (159,178) 93,901 131,593 16,402 147,995 Income taxes 97,020 (63,780)(4) 53,363 (393)(6) 32,847 5,452 (6) 58,815 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net income $156,059 $ (95,005) $ 61,054 $ 78,230 $ 10,950 $ 89,180 - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Basic earnings per share $ 2.67 $ 1.05 $ 1.18 $ 1.35 Shares used to compute basic earnings per share 58,353 58,353(7) 66,069 66,069(7) - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diluted earnings per share $ 2.65 $ 1.04 $ 1.18 $ 1.34 Shares used to compute diluted earnings per share 58,842 58,842 (7) 66,352 66,352(7) - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The description of adjustments to the pro forma condensed consolidated statements of income follows: (1) To eliminate the results of operations of the Olefins Business for the periods presented as though the sale to Amoco occurred on January 1, 1995, and to reflect reductions in administrative and other costs which occurred because of personnel, employee benefits (including compensation) and other cost reductions assumed implemented following the sale of the Olefins Business to Amoco. (2) To record service fee income and incremental sales revenue generated from providing various services and products under contracts to Amoco and to record costs and expenses for services and products provided by Amoco. The service and supply arrangements were entered into in connection with the sale of the Olefins Business to Amoco. (3) To reflect the pro forma interest cost savings resulting from the repayment of certain domestic and Belgian debt, using the proceeds received from the sale of the Olefins Business. (4) To eliminate the gain and the related income taxes on the March 1, 1996, sale of the Olefins Business. (5) To record the related amortization of certain advance rents received from Amoco upon closing of the sale of the Olefins Business associated with an arrangement in the nature of an operating lease in Belgium. (6) To record the income tax effects of adjustments set forth in adjustments (1) through (3) and (5) above, calculated at an assumed combined domestic state and federal income tax rate of 37.92%. For 1996, the Company's income tax provision on the results of operations of the remaining businesses was adjusted for utilization of a portion of the Belgium net operating loss carryforwards for which a valuation allowance had previously been provided on the related deferred tax assets and for the estimated additional income taxes which would have resulted if undistributed foreign earnings had been remitted to the Company. For 1995, no tax effects have been provided on the elimination of the results of the operations of the Olefins Business based in Belgium since valuation allowances had historically been provided on deferred tax assets associated with Belgian net operating loss carryforwards generated by this business. (7) The average number of shares used to compute basic and diluted earnings per share does not include the effects of the Company's tender offer concluded on April 1, 1996, as if it had occurred on January 1, 1995. The average number of shares used to compute basic earnings per share would have been 55,982,000 and 56,585,000 for 1996 and 1995, respectively, and the average number of shares used to compute diluted earnings per share would have been 56,471,000 and 56,868,000 for 1996 and 1995, respectively, had the offer been assumed to have been completed on January 1, 1995.
-40- 30 MANAGEMENT'S REPORT ON THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Albemarle Corporation's management has prepared the consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing on pages 23 through 40 in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. In so doing, management makes informed judgments and estimates of the expected effects of events and transactions. Actual results may differ from management's judgments and estimates. Financial data appearing elsewhere in this annual report are consistent with these consolidated financial statements. Albemarle maintains a system of internal controls to provide reasonable, but not absolute, assurance of the reliability of the financial records and the protection of assets. The internal control system is supported by written policies and procedures, careful selection and training of qualified personnel and an extensive internal audit program. These consolidated financial statements have been audited by Coopers & Lybrand L.L.P., independent certified public accountants. Their audit was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards and included an evaluation of Albemarle's internal accounting controls to the extent considered necessary to determine audit procedures. The audit committee of the Board of Directors, composed only of outside directors, meets with management, internal auditors and the independent accountants to review accounting, auditing and financial reporting matters. The independent accountants are appointed by the board on recommendation of the audit committee, subject to shareholder approval. REPORT OF INDEPENDENT ACCOUNTANTS To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Albemarle Corporation: We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Albemarle Corporation and Subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 1997 and 1996, and the related consolidated statements of income, changes in shareholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of Albemarle Corporation and Subsidiaries as of December 31, 1997 and 1996, and the consolidated results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 1997, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. /s/Coopers & Lybrand, L.L.P. Richmond, Virginia February 6, 1998 -41- 31 Item 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE None. PART III Item 10. DIRECTORS AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT The information contained in the Proxy Statement under the caption "Election of Directors" concerning directors and persons nominated to become directors of the Company is incorporated herein by reference. The names and ages of all officers of the Company as of March 13, 1998, are set forth below: Name Age Office - ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Floyd D. Gottwald, Jr.* 75 Chairman of the Board and of the Executive Committee, Chief Executive Officer, Director Charles B. Walker* 59 Vice Chairman of the Board, Chief Financial Officer, Director Dirk Betlem* 59 President and Chief Operating Officer, Director Thomas G. Avant 59 Senior Vice President - Finance and Managing Director-Americas E. Whitehead Elmore 59 Senior Vice President, General Counsel, Corporate Secretary John G. Dabkowski 49 Vice President - Polymer Chemicals Dixie E. Goins 47 Vice President - Research and Development William M. Gottwald, M.D. 50 Vice President - Corporate Strategy and Secretary to the Executive Committee Robert G. Kirchhoefer 57 Treasurer Victor L. McDearman, Jr. 53 Vice President - Fine Chemicals Charles E. Moore 57 Vice President - Engineering George A. Newbill 55 Vice President - Manufacturing Gary L. Ter Haar 61 Vice President - Health and Environment Michael D. Whitlow 46 Vice President - External Affairs and Investor Relations Edward G. Woods 56 Vice President - Business Development *Member of the Executive Committee -42- 32 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION - OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY The term of office of each such officer is until the meeting of the Board of Directors following the next annual shareholders' meeting (April 22, 1998). All such officers have been employed by the Company or its predecessor for at least the last five years, with the exception of Dirk Betlem and William M. Gottwald, M.D. Dirk Betlem joined the Company's predecessor June 1, 1993, following nearly 30 years with E.I. duPont de Nemours in a variety of management positions in the U.S. and Europe, most recently as Vice President, Imaging Systems, and earlier in a variety of manufacturing positions and management positions for Europe, the Middle East and Africa. William M. Gottwald joined Albemarle after being associated with the Company's predecessor since 1981, most recently as senior vice president responsible for finance, planning and information resources. Item 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION The information contained in the Proxy Statement under the caption "Compensation of Executive Officers and Directors" concerning executive compensation is incorporated herein by reference. Item 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT The information contained in the Proxy Statement under the caption "Stock Ownership" is incorporated herein by reference. Item 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS The information contained in the Proxy Statement under the captions "Certain Relationships and Related Transactions" and "Stock Ownership" is incorporated herein by reference. -43- 33 PART IV Item 14. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES, AND REPORTS ON FORM 8-K (a) (1) The following consolidated financial and informational statements of the registrant are included in Part II Item 8 on pages 23 to 41: Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 1997 and 1996 Consolidated Statements of Income, Changes in Shareholders' Equity and Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995 Notes to The Consolidated Financial Statements Report of Independent Accountants (a) (2) No Financial Statement Schedules are provided in accordance with Item 14 (a) (2) as the information is either not applicable, not required or has been furnished in the Consolidated Financial Statements or Notes thereto. (a) (3) Exhibits The following documents are filed as exhibits to this Form 10-K pursuant to Item 601 of Regulation S-K: 3.1 Amendment to Restated Articles of Incorporation of the registrant [filed as exhibit 3.1 to the Company's Form 10-K for 1994 (No. 1-12658), and incorporated herein by reference]. 3.2 Amended By-laws of the registrant [filed as exhibit 28.1 to the Company's Third Quarter 1997 Form 10-Q (No. 1-12658), and incorporated herein by reference]. 10.1 Credit Agreement, dated as of September 24, 1996, between the Company, NationsBank, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America Illinois, The Bank of New York and the Chase Manhattan Bank, as co-agents and certain commercial banks [filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Company's Third Quarter 1996 Form 10-Q (No. 1-12658) and incorporated herein by reference]. 10.2 The Company's 1994 Omnibus Stock Incentive Plan, adopted on February 8, 1994 [filed as Exhibit 10.1 to the Company's Form S-1 (No. 33-77452), and incorporated herein by reference]. 10.3 The Company's Bonus Plan, adopted on February 8, 1994 [filed as Exhibit 10.8 to the Company's Form 10 (No. 1-12658), and incorporated herein by reference]. 10.4 Savings Plan for the Employees of the Company, adopted on February 8, 1994 [filed as Exhibit 10.9 to the Company's Form 10 (No. 1-12658), and incorporated herein by reference]. 10.5 The Company's Excess Benefit Plan [filed as Exhibit 10.10 to the Company's Form 10 (No. 1-12658), and incorporated herein by reference]. 10.6 The Company's Supplemental Retirement Plan [filed as Exhibit 10.11 to the Company's Form 10 (No. 1-12658), and incorporated herein by reference]. 10.7 The Company's Agreement between Certain Executives [filed as Exhibit 10.12 to the Company's Form 10 (No. 1-12658), and incorporated herein by reference]. 11. Statements re: Computation of Pro Forma Earnings Per Share - for years ended December 31, 1996 and 1995. 11.1 Statements re: Computation of Pro Forma Earnings Per Share - for years ended December 31, 1997 and 1996. 21. Subsidiaries of the Company. 23. Consent of Independent Certified Public Accountants 27. Financial Data Schedule 99. Five Year Summary (see pages 46 and 47.) (b) No report on Form 8-K was filed in the last quarter of the period covered by this report. (c) Exhibits - The response to this portion of Item 14 is submitted as a separate section of this report. -44- 34 SIGNATURES Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized. ALBEMARLE CORPORATION (Registrant) By: /s/ Floyd D. Gottwald, Jr. - ---------------------------------- Floyd D. Gottwald, Jr., Chairman of the Board Dated: March 13, 1998 Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities indicated as of March 13, 1998. Signature Title - ---------------------------------------------------------------- /s/ Floyd D. Gottwald, Jr. Chairman of the Board, Chairman of - --------------------------- the Executive Committee, (Floyd D. Gottwald, Jr.) Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer) /s/ Charles B. Walker Vice Chairman of the Board, Chief - --------------------------- Financial Officer and (Charles B. Walker) Director (Principal Financial Officer) /s/ Thomas G. Avant Senior Vice President - Finance (Principal - --------------------------- Accounting Officer) (Thomas G. Avant) and Managing Director Americas /s/ Craig R. Andersson Director - --------------------------- (Craig R. Andersson) /s/ Dirk Betlem President, Chief Operating Officer - --------------------------- and Director (Dirk Betlem) /s/ John D. Gottwald Director - --------------------------- (John D. Gottwald) /s/ Andre B. Lacy Director - --------------------------- (Andre B. Lacy) /s/ Seymour S. Preston, III Director - --------------------------- (Seymour S. Preston, III) /s/ Emmett J. Rice Director - --------------------------- (Emmett J. Rice) /s/ Charles E. Stewart Director - --------------------------- (Charles E. Stewart) /s/ Anne M. Whittemore Director - --------------------------- (Anne M. Whittemore) -45- 35 EXHIBIT INDEX 3.1 Restated Articles of Incorporation Incorporated by reference see page 33 3.2 By-laws Incorporated by reference see page 33 10.1 Credit Agreement, dated September 24, 1996 Incorporated by reference see page 33 10.2 Omnibus Stock Incentive Plan Incorporated by reference see page 33 10.3 Bonus Plan Incorporated by reference see page 33 10.4 Savings Plan Incorporated by reference see page 33 10.5 Excess Benefit Plan Incorporated by reference see page 33 10.6 Supplemental Retirement Plan Incorporated by reference see page 33 10.7 Agreement Between Certain Executives Incorporated by reference see page 33 11 Computation of Pro Forma Earnings Per Share -years ended 1996 and 1995 Page 36 11.1 Computation of Pro Forma Earnings Per Share -years ended 1997 and 1996 Page 37 21 Subsidiaries of the Company Page 38 23 Consent of Independent Certified Public Accountants Page 39 27 Financial Data Schedule Page 40 99 Five Year Summary Page 41
 Pro Forma Earnings Per Share-1996 and 1995
                                                       
36
                                                       Exhibit 11

                      ALBEMARLE CORPORATION

           COMPUTATION OF PRO FORMA EARNINGS PER SHARE

          for the years ended December 31, 1996 and 1995

             (In thousands except per share amounts)


Pro Forma Pro Forma 1996 1995 ------------ ------------ BASIC EARNINGS PER SHARE Numerator: - --------- Net income adjusted to reflect operations without the Olefins Business $61,054 $89,180 -------- -------- Denominator: - ----------- Average number of shares of common stock outstanding 58,353 66,069 -------- -------- Basic earnings per share $1.05 $1.35 -------- -------- -------- -------- DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE Numerator: - --------- Net income adjusted to reflect operations without the Olefins Business $61,054 $89,180 -------- -------- Denominator: - ----------- Average number of shares of common stock outstanding 58,353 66,069 -------- -------- Shares issuable upon the assumed exercise of outstanding stock options 489 283 -------- -------- Shares of common stock and common stock equivalents 58,842 66,352 -------- -------- Diluted earnings per share $1.04 $1.34 -------- -------- -------- --------
 Pro Forma Earnings Per Share-1997 and 1996
                                                     
37                                                     
                                                     Exhibit 11.1

                      ALBEMARLE CORPORATION

           COMPUTATION OF PRO FORMA EARNINGS PER SHARE

          for the years ended December 31, 1997 and 1996

             (In thousands except per share amounts)


Pro Forma Pro Forma 1997 1996 --------- --------- BASIC EARNINGS PER SHARE Numerator: - --------- Net income after effect of applying SFAS No. 123 "Accounting for Stock Based Compensation" $79,394 $155,863 -------- --------- Denominator: - ----------- Average number of shares of common stock outstanding 55,164 58,353 -------- --------- Basic earnings per share $1.44 $2.67 -------- --------- -------- --------- DILUTED EARNINGS PER SHARE Numerator: - --------- Net income after effect of applying SFAS No. 123 "Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation" $79,394 $155,863 --------- --------- Denominator: - ----------- Average number of shares of common stock outstanding 55,164 58,353 --------- --------- Shares issuable upon the assumed exercise of outstanding stock options 504 489 --------- --------- Total shares 55,668 58,842 --------- --------- Diluted earnings per share $1.43 $2.65 --------- --------- --------- ---------
 List of Subsidiaries
                                                  
38
                                                  Exhibit 21


            LIST OF ALBEMARLE CORPORATION SUBSIDIARIES
            ------------------------------------------


Albemarle Asano Corporation

Albemarle Asia Pacific Company

Albemarle Chimie S.A.

Albemarle China Corporation

Albemarle Foreign Sales Corporation

Albemarle France S.A.R.L.

Albemarle International Corporation

Albemarle Overseas Development Company

Albemarle PPC 

Albemarle S.A.

Albemarle Virginia Corporation

Albemarle Virginia Limited Partnership

Winsor Corporation


39
                                       Exhibit 23

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT ACCOUNTANTS

We consent to the incorporation by reference in the registration statement on
Form S-1 for Albemarle Corporation (File No. 33-77452) and in the 
registration statement on Form S-8 for the Savings Plan for the Employees
of Albemarle Corporation (File No. 33-75622) of our report dated
February 6, 1998, on our audits of the consolidated financial statements of
Albemarle Corporation and Subsidiaries as of December 31, 1997 and 1996,
and for the years ended December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995, which report
is included on page 41 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


/s/Coopers & Lybrand L.L.P.

Richmond Virginia
March 20, 1998


 

5 THIS SCHEDULE CONTAINS SUMMARY INFORMATION EXTRACTED FROM THE CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET AND THE CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME FILED AS PART OF THE ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K AND IS QUALIFIED IN ITS ENTIRETY BY SUCH ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K 1,000 12-MOS DEC-31-1997 DEC-31-1997 $34,322 $0 $156,870 $2,449 $90,283 $296,736 $1,188,252 $691,612 $888,181 $112,560 $0 $0 $0 $539 $516,797 $888,181 $829,850 $829,850 $568,424 $709,143 $0 $0 $719 $120,905 $40,923 $79,982 $0 $0 $0 $79,982 $1.45 $1.44
 Five Year Summary

 
41
FIVE YEAR SUMMARY

(In Thousands Except Per-Share Amounts) Years Ended December 31 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Results of Operations(1) Net sales $829,850 $854,481 $1,244,222 $1,080,922 $ 903,418 Costs and expenses 709,143 761,055 1,127,259 986,891 854,756 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Operating profit 120,707 93,426 116,963 94,031 48,662 Interest and financing expenses (2) 719 2,529 13,265 14,484 7,797 Gain on sales of businesses (3) -- (158,157) (23,427) (8,400) -- Other income, net (917) (4,025) (4,468) (1,434) (1,640) - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Income before income taxes 120,905 253,079 131,593 89,381 42,505 Income taxes 40,923 97,020 53,363 38,103 20,695 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Net income $ 79,982 $156,059 $ 78,230 $ 51,278 $ 21,810 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FINANCIAL POSITION AND OTHER DATA(1) Total assets $888,181 $846,261 $1,204,491 $1,139,190 $1,084,960 Operations: Working capital $184,176 $111,193 $ 234,568 $ 213,038 $ 181,622 Current ratio 2.64 to 1 1.75 to 1 2.21 to 1 2.20 to 1 2.25 to 1 Depreciation and amortization $ 69,044 $ 71,044 $ 94,131 $ 93,276 $ 88,460 Capital expenditures $ 85,284 $ 90,439 $ 112,412 $ 70,379 $ 88,085 Research and development expenses $ 31,446 $ 30,442 $ 29,541 $ 28,063 $ 30,303 Gross margin as a % of net sales 31.5 28.5 22.3 22.7 21.3 Total long-term debt(2) $ 91,793 $ 31,863 $ 217,112 $ 256,462 $ 95,447 Equity (4) $517,336 $505,198 $ 622,566 $ 545,009 $ 700,233 Total long-term debt as a % of total capitalization 15.1 5.9 25.9 32.0 12.0 COMMON STOCK (5) Basic earnings per share $ 1.45 $ 2.67 $ 1.18 Shares used to compute basic earnings per share 55,164 58,353 66,069 Diluted earnings per share $ 1.44 $ 2.65 $ 1.18 Shares used to compute diluted earnings per share 55,668 58,842 66,352 Cash dividends declared per share $ 0.32 $ .25 $ .21 $ .20 Shareholders' equity per share $ 9.60 $ 9.18 $ 9.42 $ 8.25 Return on average shareholders' equity 15.6% 27.7% 13.4% 8.2% 3.4% - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (1) Includes the actual consolidated results of operations of the Company for the years ended December 31, 1997, 1996 and 1995, and for the ten months ended December 31, 1994, as well as the historical combined results of operations and net assets of Ethyl Corporation's former specialty chemical operations, spun off at the close of business on February 28, 1994, consisting of its olefins and derivatives, bromine chemicals and specialty chemicals (the predecessor businesses) for the two months ended February 28, 1994, and for the one year ended December 31, 1993. (2) Total long-term debt and interest and financing expenses for 1996 reflects the paydown of debt from the proceeds received from the March 1, 1996, sale of the alpha olefins, poly alpha olefins and synthetic alcohols businesses (Olefins Business). Total long-term debt and interest and financing expenses for 1994 include the impact of $303.4 million of debt assumed in connection with the spin-off of the Company from Ethyl. (3) 1996 gain on the sale of the Olefins Business ($94,377 after income taxes). 1995 gain on the sale of the electronic materials business ($14,542 after income taxes). 1994 gain on the sale of the Solimide business and other related assets ($6,732 after income taxes). (4) 1997 equity includes the effect of the fourth quarter purchase of 1,560,300 common shares. 1996 equity includes the effects of the purchase of 9,484,465 common shares through a tender offer concluded on April 1, 1996 and additional second and third quarter purchases of 275,400 and 1,481,100 common shares, respectively. 1994 equity includes a $303.4 million reduction for debt transferred in connection with the spin-off of the Company from Ethyl, as well as the effect of the sale of 6,863,416 new shares of the Company's common stock issued on May 11, 1994, in a private placement for $100 million. (5) No annual earnings per share information is presented for the historical results of operations of the Company and the predecessor businesses while a part of Ethyl since the Company had no separate capital structure until March 1, 1994.
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